you definitely can, but it may not be worth it. Is there a witness? If not, it could be problematic. If you do want to take them to small claims, filing would be about $30 and serving them with the papers would be $20. If you win, you can get this money back... but there is always a chance that you will not win and you are out the $50. Also, keep in mind that you will have to take time off work or school etc to go to court... this might not be a problem for you, but again you could be losing 100+ dollars if you miss some work. If you do win the case, you still have to collect the money... the person might just write you a check then and there, but they also may never pay you and getting the money can be difficult.
if anything you may want to just go talk to the person and see if you can get them to pay for it if they realize they caused you damage.