The proposal to extend clinical trials, which are routinely used as systematic tests of pharmaceutical innovations, to new surgical procedures shouod not be implemented. The point is that surgical procedures differ in one important respect from medicinal drugs: a correctly prescribed drugs depends for its effectiveness only on the drug's composition, whereas the effectiveness of even the most appropriate surgical procedure is transparently related to the skills of the surgeon who uses it.the resaoning in the argument is flawed because the argumenta.) does not consider that new surgical procedures might be found to be intrinsically more harmful than the best treatment previously available.b.) ignores the possibility that the challenged proposal is deliberately crude in a way designed to elicit criticism to be used in refinding the proposal.c.) assumnes that a surgoen's skills remain unchanged throughout the surgeon's professional life.d.) describes a dissimiliarity without citina nay scientific evidence for the existecne of that dissimiliarity.e.) rejects a proposal presumably advanced in good faith without acknowledgiing any such good faith.