Law School Discussion


What was the difference between your average preptest score and the real LSAT?

18 (22.5%)
+3 tor 4
4 (5%)
+1 or 2
8 (10%)
9 (11.3%)
- 1 or 2
2 (2.5%)
- 3 to 4
13 (16.3%)
14 (17.5%)
I didn't take any practice tests.
12 (15%)

Total Members Voted: 68

Do You Think The Congressional Page Program Should Be Terminated?

« Reply #20 on: October 12, 2006, 10:32:58 PM »

In the ancient pagan Mystery Religions, homosexuality and pedophilia were popularized. Worshippers of Baal erected shrines and temples of male prostitution (I Kings 14). Roman Emperors Nero, Caligula, and Commodus engaged in incest, sex with boys, bondage, and a variety of evil crimes.

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, A.D. 12 – January 24, A.D. 41), most commonly known as Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. Known for his extreme extravagance, eccentricity, depravity and cruelty, he is remembered as a despot. He was assassinated in 41 by several of his own guards.

The Roman historian Suetonius referred to Caligula as a "monster", and the surviving sources are universal in their condemnation. One popular tale, often cited as an example of his insanity and tyranny, is that Caligula appointed his favorite horse, Incitatus, to a seat on the senate and attempted to appoint it to the position of consul. The story, however, owes its unrelenting currency to its charm: it is based on a single misunderstood near-contemporary reference, in which Suetonius merely repeats an unattributed rumour that Caligula was thinking about doing it. Caligula is often alleged to have had incestuous relationships with his sisters, most notably his younger sister Drusilla, but there is no credible evidence to support such claims either. In short, the surviving sources are filled with anecdotes of Caligula's cruelty and insanity rather than an actual account of his reign, making any reconstruction of his time as Princeps nearly impossible. What does survive is the picture of a depraved, hedonistic ruler, an image that has made Caligula one of the most widely recognizable, if poorly documented, of all the Roman Emperors; the name "Caligula" itself has become synonymous with wanton hedonism, cruelty, tyranny, and insanity.

Gaius' life started out promisingly, as he was the son of extremely famous parents. Germanicus was a grandson to Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, Augustus's third wife, as well as an adoptive grandson of Augustus himself. He was thus a prominent member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and was revered as son of the most beloved general of the Roman Empire. Agrippina was herself a granddaughter of Augustus and Scribonia. She was considered a model of the perfect Roman woman. As a boy of just two or three, he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north of Germania and became the mascot of his father's army. The soldiers were amused whenever Agrippina would put young Gaius in a miniature soldier costume, and he was soon given his nickname Caligula, meaning "Little (Soldier's) boot", after the small boots he wore as part of his costume.

Caligae of a roman soldier

The adolescent Caligula was sent to live first with his great-grandmother, and Tiberius's mother, Livia, in 27, possibly as a hostage. Following Livia's falling-out with Tiberius and her death two years later, he was returned to his Julian relatives and remanded to his grandmother Antonia. During this period Caligula had little outside contact, and his sole companions were his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla. Later, Caligula's accusers would focus on this close relationship, accusing the Emperor of having engaged in incest with all three, but especially Drusilla. Suetonius in particular writes a great deal about these supposed acts.

In 31, Caligula was remanded to the personal care of Tiberius on Capri until the death of Tiberius and the ascension of Caligula in 37. By this time, Caligula was already in favor with Tiberius. Suetonius writes of extreme perversions happening on Capri, as Tiberius was without the people who managed to keep him in line (Augustus, Livia, his brother Drusus, and his best friend Nerva), so he felt free to indulge in any perversion he desired. Whether this is true or not is hard to say. Unpopular Emperors such as Tiberius and Caligula may not have had the whole truth written about them, and gossip is common throughout ancient texts.

From a very early age Caligula learned to tread very carefully. According to both Tacitus and Suetonius, he surpassed his brothers in intelligence, and was an excellent natural actor, realizing the danger when other members of his family could not. Caligula survived when most of the other potential candidates to the throne were destroyed. His mother Agrippina was banished to the tiny island of Pandataria, where she starved herself to death. His two oldest brothers, Nero and Drusus, also died. Nero was banished to the island of Ponza, while Drusus' body was found locked in a dungeon with stuffing from his mattress in his mouth to keep off the hunger pangs.

Suetonius writes of Caligula's servile nature towards Tiberius, and his indifferent nature towards his dead mother and brothers. By his own account, Caligula mentioned years later that this servility was a sham in order to stay alive, and on more than one occasion he very nearly killed Tiberius when his anger overwhelmed him. An observer said of Caligula: "Never was there a better servant or a worse master!" Caligula proved to have a flair for administration and won further favor with the ailing Tiberius by carrying out many of his duties for him. At night, Caligula would inflict torture on slaves and watch bloody gladiatorial games with glee. In 33, Tiberius gave Caligula the position of honorary quaestorship, the only form of public service Caligula would hold until his reign.

During his short reign, Mauretania was annexed and reorganized into two provinces, Herod Agrippa was appointed to a kingdom in Judaea, and severe riots took place in Alexandria between Jews and Greeks. Though certainly of note, these events are largely ignored by the surviving sources, all of whom unanimously focus on the Emperor as a mentally unstable, homicidal and depraved madman.

Examples of his insanity focus on a handful of episodes in his life, notably Caligula's military activities on the northern frontier, and his religious policy. His northern campaigns are derided, with accounts of Gauls dressed up as Germans at his triumph, and Roman troops ordered to collect sea-shells as "spoils of the sea" and indicative of his victory against Neptune. Numerous theories and suggestions have been put forth to attempt to explain these actions as anything other than those of a mad-man, the most reasonable suggestion being that Caligula went north to invade Britain and win where even Julius Caesar had been forced to retreat. His troops seem to have had a different campaign in mind, and upon arriving at the shores of the English Channel, the troops refused to go further, hence Caligula ordered them to collect sea-shells as their reward for the "campaign" that they refused to embark upon. Once again, however, due to the lack of sources, what precisely occurred and why is a matter of debate even among the primary sources for Caligula's reign.

Outlandish stories cluster about the raving emperor, illustrating his excessive cruelty, multiple and peculiar sexual escapades (both heterosexual and homosexual) or disrespect toward tradition and the Senate. Sources describe his incestuous relationships with all three of his sisters, his disembowelment of his favorite sister in order to get to the child he impregnated her with resulting in her death, his subsequent declaring her to be a goddess, his selling to the highest bidder of the wives of high ranking Senate members during sexual orgies, his laughable military campaigns in the north, the plan to make his horse Incitatus a consul, and his habit of roaming the halls of his palace at night ordering the sun to rise. He also named his horse as a priest, and gave it a house to reside in, complete with a marble stable, golden manger, and jewel necklaces; and he later talked of making his horse a member of the Senate. He opened a brothel in his palace and had a habit of taking Senate members' wives with him to his private bedroom during social functions, while the husbands could merely look on as they left together, then he would recount the sexual acts he performed with the wives for all to hear, including her husband.

He comes across as aloof, arrogant, egotistical, and is generally portrayed as insane. He is said to have cried "I wish the Roman people had but a single neck" when an arena crowd applauded a faction he opposed. It is also said that when there were not enough convicts to fight lions & tigers in arena, he threw in some spectators. Suetonius wrote that he often uttered "Let them hate me, so long as they fear me", and described this as a familiar line of the tragic poet (Accius); however, Suetonius also attributes the utterance of this line to Tiberius.

What is documented is that he declared himself a living god, and even had a bridge constructed between his palace and Jupiter's Temple. He is also said to have made it a crime to look down on him from above, and not to leave him everything in a will. To the Roman people, this was considered nothing less than blasphemy. Caligula was also incredibly self-indulgent, dramatic proof of which has been found with the discovery of two sunken ships at the bottom of Lake Nemi. These two ships were by far the largest vessels in the ancient world; in fact their size was not even rivaled until after the Renaissance. The smaller of the ships was designed as a temple dedicated to Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis). The larger ship was essentially an elaborate floating palace that counted marble floors and plumbing among its amenities, the sole role of which was to satisfy Caligula's increasingly hedonistic behavior.

« Reply #21 on: October 12, 2006, 11:01:54 PM »

Caligula's wife and sister Drusilla display their passion for each other.

Tiberius Caesar teaches young Caligula that power and pleasure are much more important than love, and those who fear you are the only ones you can control.

"I am all men, as I am no man. And so ... I am a GOD!"

That which Caligula controlled ultimately controlled him.

"I shall now bestow the blessings of almighty Caesar upon this happy union," as he takes a virgin bride for himself.

Caligula chooses Caesonia, the most promiscuous woman in Rome, as his bride.

Caligula and his friend's new bride on the "sacred marriage bed" ... the kitchen table.

Explicit Roman orgies were commonplace within the walls of Caligula's palace.

Caligula is calmed after a thunderstorm sets off his wild paranoia of assassination.

See the most erotic lesbian sex scene ever caught on film.

From the beautiful naked bodies engaged in sexual freedom to the torturous whippings and genital mangling, Roman orgies displayed the utmost extreme in pleasure and pain.

Caligula (MALCOLM McDOWELL) is summoned to Capri by Tiberius (PETER O'TOOLE), his adopted grandfather. His escort is Macro (GUIDO MANNARI), commander of the Praetorian Guard. Macro seeks to curry favor with Caligula, who will be the next Emperor, by tempting him with the promise of sleeping with Ennia (ADRIANA ASTI), his wife. Frightened, but sycophantically eager to fall in with any mood of the mercurial Tiberius, Caligula has his first glimpse of absolute power as the aged Emperor leads him from his cavernous swimming pool through his grotto of pleasures. There, the two become voyeurs as youths and maidens act out Tiberius' fantasies.

Accompanying them is a noble, elderly Senator, Nerva (JOHN GIELGUD), the only contemporary intimate of Tiberius who has survived the execution of several Senators, despite the fact, or perhaps because, he is the only one who dares openly to criticize and condemn. When Nerva chooses suicide over a natural death, Tiberius' seemingly ordered life is shaken, and his own death, hastened. Caligula and Macro come to witness the end. They find the old Emperor partially paralyzed, lying alone in the state bedroom. Prematurely, Caligula tears off the signet ring, symbol of power. Tiberius rallies. Macro insures has death by smothering him. A frightened Gemellus (BRUNO BRIVE), Tiberius' grandson by birth, has witnessed the murder.

Caligula, the new Emperor, gains instant popularity by announcing a general amnesty. He accepts the highest office of the Republic, the Consulship, naming his uncle Claudius (GIANCARLO BADESSI), his fellow Consul and Gemellus as his son and heir. For a time, Caligula is splendidly good-humored, eager to be loved by the people. There is scarcely a hint of the tyrant he will become. One of his first questionable acts is to rid himself of Macro. By promising the Guards a huge pay bonus, he orders them to arrest their commander. Macro is replaced by Chaerea (PAOLO BONACELLI). Caligula is free to marry Ennia, now a widow, but Drusilla (TERESA ANN SAVOY), his sister and paramour, counsels him to marry a respectable Roman and father an heir.

Disguised as a woman, Caligula comes to choose a candidate from among the shapely priestesses in the Temple of Isis. He is attracted -- despite Drusilla's protests that she is promiscuous -- to Caesonia (HELEN MIRREN), an eloquent, sensual divorcee, who becomes his mistress, then wife. The darker side of Caligula begins to show itself as he comes to realize that no one will challenge his absolute power. His terror during a thunder and lightning storm is the first sign of a breakdown. His actions become more and more senseless. His only confidant is his Arab stallion, Incitatus, which he rides into the banquet where Gemellus is one of the guests. In a macabre mood, he accuses Gemellus publicly of treason and has him arrested.

As Caesonia's child is being born, Caligula marries her and names the babe his heir. He is enraged to learn the child is a girl and insists on calling her "my son." Drusilla's death soon afterwards leaves Caligula in despair. He proclaims a month of mourning and, distraught, mingles anonymously with his Roman citizens. When Caligula is dragged drunk and dirty into a prison, his signet ring is spotted by a giant (OSIRIDE PEVARELLO) and his true identity becomes known. Back in the Senate, Caligula proclaims himself a god and awards free games and food to every citizen. When Longinus (JOHN STEINER), his treasurer, protests, Caligula shows him how easy it is to replenish the Imperial purse.

He builds a ship in the palace that is to be used as a brothel. Forcing the wives and daughters of his Senators into prostitution, Caligula himself collects the fees from citizens eager to sample their betters. His final public act of madness is to proclaim his horse Incitatus a Senator. Destiny catches up with Caligula at the age of 29, after a rule of three years, ten months and eight days. Chaerea, Longinus and the Imperial physician Charicles (LEOPOLDO TRIESTE) have quietly organized his assassination. It is a vengeful Chaerea whose sword brings down the Emperor. To insure that none of Caligula's line will follow him to power, Caesonia and Julia, her child, are also put to the sword. A new era in Rome will begin with the new Emperor -- the unwilling, dull-witted Claudius.

Pederasty as an Institution, in Ancient Greece
« Reply #22 on: October 14, 2006, 03:52:26 AM »

The bearded man is depicted in a traditional pederastic courtship gesture, one hand reaching to fondle the young man, the other grasping his chin so as to look him in the eye. The youth is putting up symbolic resistance only.

Greek pederasty, as idealized by the Greeks from Archaic times onward, was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside of his immediate family, and was constructed as an aristocratic moral and educational institution. As such, it was seen by the Greeks as an essential element in their culture from the time of Homer onwards. The term derives from the combination of pais (Greek for 'boy') with erastēs (Greek for 'lover'; cf. eros). In a wider sense it referred to erotic love between adolescents and adult men. The Greeks considered it normal for any man to be drawn to the beauty of a boy - just as much if not more than to that of a woman. What they disagreed upon was whether and how to express that desire. Pederasty is closely associated with the customs of athletic and artistic nudity in the gymnasia, delayed marriage for gentlemen, symposia and seclusion of women. It is also integral to Greek military training, and an important factor in the deployment of troops.

The ancient Greeks of the pederastic city-states were the first to describe, study, systematize, and establish pederasty as an institution. The origin of that tradition has been variously explained. One school of thought, articulated by Bernard Sergent, holds that the Greek pederastic model evolved from far older Indo-European rites of passage, which were grounded in a shamanic tradition with roots in the neolithic. Another explanation, articulated by Anglophone scholars such as William Percy, holds that pederasty was formalized in ancient Crete around 630 B.C. as a means of population control, together with delayed age of marriage for men of 30 years.

The Spartans however were said to practice chaste pederasty.[4] Where allowed, a free man was usually entitled to fall in love with a boy, proclaim it publicly, and court him as long as the boy in question manifested the traits prerequisite to a pederastic relationship: he had to be kalos (καλός), "handsome" and agathos ((καλός), good, brave, just, and modest. The boy was expected to be circumspect and not let himself be easily won. Generally, the role of the lover had many of the characteristics of that of legal guardian, similar to the role of male relatives of the boy.

Socrates, Plato, Aeschines Socraticus, and Xenophon described the inspirational powers of love between men though decrying its physical expression. Upon the death of Plato the presidency of the Academy passed from lover to lover. Of the Stoics, Chrysippus, Cleanthes, and Zeno fell in love with young men. Socrates, as represented in Plato's writings, appears to have favored chaste pederastic relationships, marked by a balance between desire and self-control or so we are told. By setting aside the sexual consummation of the relationship, Socrates essentialized the friendship and love between the partners. He pointedly criticized purely physical infatuations, for example by mocking Critias' lust for Euthydemus by comparing his behavior towards the boy to that of a "a piglet scratching itself against a rock". That, however, did not prevent him from frequenting the boy brothels, from which he bought and freed his future friend and student, Phaedo, nor from describing his erotic intoxication upon glimpsing the beautiful Charmides' naked body beneath his open tunic. Socrates' love of Alcibiades, which was more than reciprocated, is held as an example of chaste pederasty. Plutarch and Xenophon, in their descriptions of Spartan pederasty, state that even though it is the beautiful boys who are sought above all others (contrary to the Cretan traditions), nevertheless the pederastic couple remains chaste.

Male relationships were represented in complex ways, some honorable and others dishonorable. But for the vast majority of ancient historians for a man to have not had a youth for a lover presented a deficiency in character. Plato, in his early works (the Symposium or in Phaedrus), does not question the principles of pederasty and states, referring to same-sex relationships:

For I know not any greater blessing to a young man who is beginning in life than a virtuous lover, or to a lover than a beloved youth. For the principle, I say, neither kindred, nor honor, nor wealth, nor any motive is able to implant so well as love. Of what am I speaking? Of the sense of honor and dishonor, without which neither states nor individuals ever do any good or great work… And if there were only some way of contriving that a state or an army should be made up of lovers and their loves, they would be the very best governors of their own city, abstaining from all dishonor and emulating one another in honor; and it is scarcely an exaggeration to say that when fighting at each other’s side, although a mere handful, they would overcome the world.

Dr. Alfred W. McCoy has claimed that the CIA secretly collaborated with Asian drug syndicates and was complicit in the expansion of the global heroin trade from 1970 to 1973 in order to prosecute the Cold War. While the Vietnam War brought modern transportation to remote opium areas, McCoy himself does not claim that the CIA set up the drug labs in Southeast Asia or created the trade. Heroin is one of the most profitable illicit drugs since it is compact and easily concealed. At present, opium poppies are mostly grown in the Middle East, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, and in Asia, especially in the region known as the Golden Triangle straddling Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and Yunnan province in China. There is also cultivation of opium poppies in the Sinaloa region of Mexico and in Colombia. The majority of the heroin consumed in the United States comes from Mexico and Colombia. Up until 2004, Pakistan was considered one of the biggest opium-growing countries. However, the efforts of Pakistan's Anti-Narcotics Force have since reduced the opium growing area by 59% as of 2001[citation needed]. Some suggest that the decline in Pakistani production is inversely proportional to the rise of Afghani production, and that rather than anti-narcotics activity, the decline in Pakistan is due more to changed market forces.

Social aspects

The erastes-eromenos relationship was fundamental to the Classical Greek social and educational system, had its own complex social-sexual etiquette and was an important social institution among the upper class. Pederastic relationships were dyadic mentorships. These mentorships were sanctioned by the state, as evidenced by laws mandating and controlling such relationships. Likewise, they were consecrated by the religious establishment, as can be seen from the many myths describing such relationships between gods and heroes (Apollo and Hyacinth, Zeus and Ganymede, Heracles and Hylas, Pan and Daphnis) and between one hero and another (Achilles and Patroclus, Orestes and Pylades). It is interesting to note that the Greeks tried to project a semblance of pederasty (read: propriety) onto these last two pairs, despite a great deal of evidence that the two myths were originally intended to symbolize egalitarian relationships. In general, the pederasty described in the Greek literary sources is clearly an aristocratic institution.

Wiki's :)
« Reply #23 on: October 14, 2006, 04:24:29 AM »
Boys entered into such relationships in their teens, around the same age that Greek girls were given in marriage -- also to adult husbands many years their senior. There was a difference between the two types of bonding: Boys usually had to be courted and were free to choose their mate. Girls, on the other hand, were used for economic and political advantage, their marriages contracted at the discretion of the father and the suitor. The function of the relationship seems to have been the introduction of the young man into adult society and adult responsibilites. To that end the mentor was expected to teach the young man or to see to his education, and to give him certain appropriate ceremonial gifts (in Crete, an ox, a suit of armor, and a chalice. The bond between the two participants seems to have been based in part on mutual love and desire -- usually sexually expressed -- and in part on the political interests of the two families. A great deal of importance was placed on the friendship between the two, as shown by a contemporary proverb, "A lover is the best friend a boy will ever have." The relationships were open and public, and became part of the biography of the person. Thus when Spartan historians wrote about a personage they would usually indicate whom it was that he had heard or whom it was that he inspired.

For the youth -- and his family - one important advantage of being mentored by an influential older man was the social networking aspect. Thus some considered it desirable to have had many older lovers / mentors in one's younger years, both attesting to one's physical beauty and paving the way for attaining important positions in society. Typically, after their sexual relationship had ended and the young man had married, the older man and his protégé would remain on close terms throughout their life. For those lovers who continued their lovemaking after their beloveds had matured, the Greeks made allowances, saying, "You can lift up a bull, if you carried the calf." Pederasty was the idealized form of an age-structured homoeroticism that, like all social institutions, had other, less idyllic, manifestations, such as prostitution or the use of one's slave boys. However, certain forms were prohibited, such as slaves penetrating freemen, or paying free boys or young men for sex. Free youths who did sell their favors were generally ridiculed and later in life were prohibited from performing certain official functions.

A prosecution by an Athenian politician, Aeschines, in 346 B.C.E., Against Timarchus, is an example of how these regulations were used to political advantage. In his speech, Aeschines argues against further allowing Timarchus, an experienced middle-aged politician, his political rights, on account of his having spent his adolescence as the kept boy of a series of wealthy men. Aeschines won his case, and Timarchus was sentenced to atimia. But Aeschines is careful to acknowledge what seemingly all Athens knows: his own dalliances with beautiful boys, the erotic poems he dedicated to these youths, and the scrapes he has gotten into as a result of his affairs, none of which -- he hastens to point out -- were mediated by money. Even when lawful, it was not uncommon for the relationship to fail, as it was said of many boys that they "hated no one as much as the man who had been their lover". Likewise, the Cretans required the boy to declare whether the relationship had been to his liking, thus giving him an opportunity to break it off if any violence had been done to him.

Synergy with sports

The institution of pederasty was inseparable from that of organized sports. The main venue for men and boys to meet and spend time together, and for the men to educate the boys in the arts of warfare, sports, and philosophy was the gymnasium, which was preeminently the training ground for these disciplines, and one of the principal venues for pederastic relationships. In particular, the practice of exercising nude was held to be of the utmost importance in the cult of beauty and eros which permeated pederastic societies. "The cities which have most to do with gymnastics", is the phrase which Plato uses to describe the states where Greek love flourished. "Gymnastics" in this instance conveys not only the sense of athletic discipline but also, from the Greek gymnos, "nude", the fact that all these exercises were taken by men and boys who were naked, and thus especially liable to be excited by physical beauty. The beauty and erotic power of the naked body was highlighted by the custom of oiling one's body for exercise. The provision of oil for such decoration was the greatest expense of a gymnasium, and had to be heavily subsidized by the public coffers or private donors. The practice itself varied over time: in the early days it was said that modesty prevented the boys from drawing attention to their sexuality by oiling themselves below the waist. Such restraint was presumably cast by the wayside by Plato's time. The relationship between a trainer and his athletes often had an erotic dimension, and the same place which served as training ground served equally for erotic dalliances, as can be seen from the many scenes of seduction and lovemaking depicting implements found at palaestras, such as sponges and strigils.

Educational and military aspects
Athens Ancient writers, as well as modern historians such as Bruce Thornton, hold that the goal of paiderastia was pedagogical, the channeling of Eros into the creation of noble and good citizens. The various mythographical materials available suggest religious training as well as military training hor so we are told. In talking about the Cretan rite, the historian Ephorus informs us that the man (known as philetor, befriender) took the boy (known as kleinos, "glorious") into the wilderness, where they spent several months hunting and feasting with their friends. If the boy was satisfied with the conduct of his would-be comrade, he changed his title from kleinos to parastates (comrade and bystander in the ranks of battle and life), returned to the philetor and lived in close bonds of public intimacy with him. Ephorus' account does not discuss the educational aspects of the sojourn. However, this is clearly a coming-of-age rite culminating in a major ceremony upon the return of the pair from the mountains, and a process of acculturation into male society is implied.

Military function

Military training is inseparable from the other educational aspects of pederasty since the times of the Ancient Greeks were marked by continuous warfare, both internal and external. Martial prowess was held in the highest esteem, and one of the principal functions of pederastic relationships was the cultivation of bravery and fighting skills. Ancient sources suggest a range of sexual activity. Cicero, describing Spartan customs, suggests that relations were expected to stop short of consummation,

"The Lacedaemonians, while they permit all things except outrage [hybris] in the love of youths, certainly distinguish the forbidden by a thin wall of partition from the sanctioned, for they allow embraces and a common couch to lovers."

On the other hand, one Athenian term for sodomy was "to do it the Lacedemonian way." Literary sources are a lot more risqué, especially ancient comedy. For example, Aristophanes, in "Peace," his parody of Ganymede riding on the back of Zeus in eagle form, has his character ride to Olympus on the back of a dung beetle, a scatological pun on anal sex. Some modern historians, such as Thornton, conclude that whether the relationship was consummated or not probably depended on the partners. The majority of ceramic paintings depict the older partner importuning the younger, in a variation of the Greek gesture for pleading. Normally the supplicant embraced the knees of the person whose favor he sought, while grasping the man's chin so as to look into his eyes. Pederastic art usually shows the man standing, grasping the boy's chin with one hand and reaching to fondle his genitals with the other. The boys are shown in varying degrees of rejecting or accepting the man's attentions. Less frequently, intercrural intercourse is depicted, where the erastes is shown inserting his penis between the thighs of the younger one. Only very rarely is anal sex suggested or shown, though there are literary and epigraphic indications suggesting it was more common.

Re: Do You Think The Congressional Page Program Should Be Terminated?
« Reply #24 on: October 14, 2006, 04:31:46 AM »
All this was claimed to be endured by the youth without physical excitement. K.J.Dover states that the eromenos was not "supposed" to feel desire for the erastes, as that would be unmanly. More recent evidence suggests that in actual practice (as opposed to theory) there was, in fact, reciprocation of desire. As Thomas Hubbard points out in a critique of David Halperin's contention that boys were not aroused, some vases do show boys as being sexually responsive, and "Fondling a boy's organ was one of the most commonly represented courtship gestures on the vases. What can the point of this act have been unless lovers in fact derived some pleasure from feeling and watching the boy's developing organ wake up and respond to their manual stimulation?"

The theme of mutuality of desire was a topic of discussion in ancient times as well. While the passive role was seen as problematic, to be attracted to men was often taken as a sign of masculinity, and it was thought that the boys who most sought the company and affections of men were the most likely to be successful in life.

Political aspects

The state benefitted from these relationships, according to the statements of ancient writers. The friendship functioned as a restraint on the youth, since if he committed a crime it was not he but his lover who was punished. In the military the lovers fought side by side, with each vying to shine before the other. Thus, it was said that an army of lovers would be invincible, as was the case until the battle of Chaeronea with the Theban Sacred Band, a battalion of 150 warriors, each aided by his beloved charioteer. Pederastic couples were also said to be feared by tyrants, because the bond between the friends was stronger than that of obedience to a tyrannical ruler. Athenaeus states that

"Hieronymus the Aristotelian says that love with boys was fashionable because several tyrannies had been overturned by young men in their prime, joined together as comrades in mutual sympathy."

He gives as examples of such pederastic couples the Athenians Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who were credited (perhaps symbolically) with the overthrow of the tyrant Hippias and the establishment of the democracy, and also Chariton and Melanippus. Others, such as Aristotle, claimed that some states encouraged pederasty as a means of population control, by directing love and sexual desire into non-procreative channels, a feature of pederasty also employed by other cultures. Political leaders Solon, Peisistratus, Hippias, Hipparchus, Themistocles, Aristides, Critias, Demosthenes, and Aeschines of Athens; Pausanias, Lysander, and Agesilaus of Sparta; Polycrates of Samos; Hieron and Agathocles of Syracuse; Epaminondas and Pelopidas of Thebes; and Archelaus, Philip II, and Alexander of Macedon were recorded to have had same-sex relationships.

Regional characteristics

The founder of the pederastic tradition in Athens is said to be the lawgiver Solon, who also composed poetry praising the love of boys. In Athens, the lover was known as the erastes, and his young partner as the eromenos or paidika. Athenian high society generally encouraged the erastes to pursue a boy to love. At the same time, the boy and his family were expected to put up resistance and not give in too easily hor so we are told. Pederastic affairs were the butt of jokes for the commoners. Athenian philosophers, around the end of the 5th century, prompted by a discomfort with the lack of self-restraint and crude sexuality of some pederastic relationships elaborated a philosophy of pederasty that valorized chaste pederastic relations.

Re: Do You Think The Congressional Page Program Should Be Terminated?
« Reply #25 on: October 14, 2006, 04:48:55 AM »
That said, among gay writers and activists today there is a troubling tendency to idealize Hellenic Greece, a society which was heavily influenced, if not dominated, by a male homosexual elite. They've authored a glowing account about the "gay king" Alexander and has described Hellenic Greece as "the most gay-friendly society in history." This requires critical scrutiny from scholars and ethicists who do not share the pro-gay bias.

An adequate understanding of the ancient Greece, a society based upon misogyny, militarism, imperialism, and slavery. A homosexual male elite enjoyed a privileged position in ancient Greece, but its members by no means conformed to the common stereotype of effeminacy. On the contrary, they were especially effective in the use of violence, and were consequently the best soldiers. Enjoying high status in a militaristic society, they were able to institutionalize the practice of pederasty (man-to-boy sex) and have their way with boys as young as 12. William Armstrong Percy, a gay history professor at the University of Massachusetts has this to say:

Pederasty was from the beginning both physical and emotional, the highest and most intense type of male bonding. These pederastic bonds, Percy believes, were responsible for the rise of Hellas and the 'Greek miracle': in 2 centuries the population of Attica, a mere 45,000 adult males in 6 generations, produced an astounding number of great men who laid the enduring foundations of Western thought and civilization.

Percy would have us believe that all the wonders of civilization are owed to the fact that Greek homosexuals were allowed to exploit children sexually. Further, in "The Gay and Lesbian Review Worldwide" he writes that

"for the Greeks a sexual relationship between an adolescent male and an adult male could under the proper circumstances involve the youth in a loving and supportive union."

He admits that the "adolescent" males might have been as young as 12. That such trash could come from a history professor at a prestigious university is nothing less than appalling.

A More Realistic View

In a commentary published by The Boston Globe, Richard Hoffman discusses the lawsuit brought against the NAMBLA, a gay pedophile group, by the parents of Jeffrey Curley. In 1997, at age 10, Curley had been murdered by 2 child molesters alleged to have been influenced by NAMBLA literature. Describing NAMBLA's propaganda tactics, he writes:
Be prepared for much talk about "the glory that was Greece," but do not expect to hear the truth that the consorts of these ancestral "boy-lovers" were slave children, or that their masters were the elite of a phallic hierarchy as misogynist as any that has ever existed. Like propagandists everywhere, NAMBLA plunders the past for anything it can use to forge a ratifying myth. The NAMBLA version of classical Greece is an ideologically driven infomercial.

More Gay Praise for Ancient Greece

Within contemporary gay culture there are other writers and activists who celebrate ancient Greece. Michael Hattersley's article, published in The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review offers generous praise to Alexander the Great. Imposing Greek culture everywhere he went, in terms of the amount of land conquered Alexander was the most successful imperialist the world had ever known at that time. "Alexander," he writes, was "the greatest of gay heroes." His rule, says Hattersley, resulted in the most "gay-friendly society in human history." Hattersley believes that Alexander was kind to those he conquered, because he always "implanted much higher standards of culture." Indeed, in deference to these "high standards," the gentle imperialist Alexander captured and destroyed Thebes and sold its inhabitants into slavery. Hattersley writes that Alexander's mentor, Aristotle, "believed that Greeks had nothing to learn from other cultures."

Alexander the Child Molester

Gay writer Paul Russell, author of "The Gay 100," provides additional interesting information about Alexander, who never lost a battle in 11 years of warfare. Alexander also had a sexual relationship with a boy, Bagoas, who was apparently a slave. Russell, seemingly wishing to avoid explicit reference to this sordid state of affairs, writes that Alexander "acquired" the boy from the defeated Persian Darius. It is interesting to observe how these gay writers express such deep admiration for pederasts, imperialists, and military conquerors, while simultaneously affirming the contempt which masculine homosexual males display for effeminacy. Concluding his chapter on Alexander, Russell writes:

"Alexander has been ... one of those beacons by which gay people have been able to locate themselves in the world. Furthermore, his example has always offered a persuasive rebuttal to the stereotyped equation of male homosexuality and effeminacy ... a fighting man who loved men.

The Gay Emperors of Rome

Hattersley also offers praise for 3 homosexual Roman emperors of the 2d century AD: Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus. He writes that their time was "the greatest and most humane period of ancient Rome" and that they "emulated Alexander and Hellenism in their philosophy and governance." Overlooked by Hattersley in his joyful assessment is the fact that one of the most brutal entertainment forms ever known to humanity, gladiatorial combat, was thriving in Rome at the time these gay emperors were enjoying their rule. The contests did not only involve men killing each other but also killing animals or being killed by them. Many of the gladiators were slaves or prisoners of war. The Coliseum became the arena for gladiator combat, and its construction was completed eighteen years before Trajan assumed the throne in 98 A.D. Trajan experienced stimulation from blood, violence, death, tormented animals, and male muscularity -- all of which were on display for his pleasure during gladiator events. Trajan's perverse passion appears to have arisen from a mix of voyeurism and bestiality inflamed by the torch of homoerotic sadism. Information available at the Bates College website suggests that his appetite for sordid forms of excitement was infinite and that cruelty to animals ignited a special source of arousal for him:

The slaughter of wildlife in these contests were astonishing. Hundreds in a day was routine. At the games held by Trajan when he became Emperor, 9,000 were killed. Today we are appalled by the scale of wanton destruction. Researchers for the Getty museum also suggest that modern Americans would be troubled by the violence of Roman entertainment during the days of Trajan, who sponsored gladiator contests and animal fights to celebrate his military victories. Another deplorable event taking place under the rule of the "humane" Trajan was the execution of St. Ignatius by having him thrown to the lions.

An Unflattering View of Hadrian

Russell provides information by which we can assess the "humane" deeds of the homosexual emperor Hadrian, who followed Trajan. Hadrian came to power in the midst of suspicion that he had murdered Trajan, who died only 2 days after adopting Hadrian and thus making him heir to the throne. Hadrian had 4 Roman Senators killed in order to silence these accusations. Also noteworthy is the fact that he crushed a Jewish revolt in Palestine in 135 AD. Following the example of the "gay-friendly" Hellenic Greeks, Hadrian was also a child molester. Of course, gay author Russell does not describe him that way, but does inform us that Hadrian had a sexual relationship with a boy named Antinous, who was only 13 when it was initiated. After Antinous mysteriously drowned in the Nile, speculation emerged that his death was a suicide undertaken as an escape from the clutches of the "humane" Hadrian. Russell, who is an English professor at Vassar, finds no reason to condemn Hadrian for his sexual use of a boy. On the contrary, he describes Hadrian and Antinous as "one of the greatest pairs of lovers in the history of the world."

Re: Do You Think The Congressional Page Program Should Be Terminated?
« Reply #26 on: October 14, 2006, 04:55:16 AM »
The Abominable Crimes of Nero

Another gay Roman emperor was the infamous Nero, who assured his ascension to the throne by having his brother Britannicus murdered in 55 A.D. 4 years later he had his mother murdered as well. Of Nero, Chris Scarre, author of Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, writes:

Nero divorced his first wife, Octavia, and then had her killed. He married Poppaea, but in a fit of rage while she was pregnant, he kicked her to death. He married a 3d wife, but then he left her for a boy who resembled Poppaea. While it is believed that Nero did not start the great fire that destroyed much of Rome, it did clear the land he needed on which to build his Golden House, a palace of such size, richness, and majesty as had never been seen before. The excesses he showered upon himself, his brutality, and his outrageous behavior finally drove away his last supporters.

Other accounts hold that Nero had been rumored to be the arsonist, and that he initiated extreme cruelties against the early Christians after blaming them for the fire. Interestingly, Russell does not devote a chapter of his book to this unspeakably wicked gay despot. He makes only indirect reference to him by mentioning that, with the exception of Claudius, all of the emperors of the Julio-Claudian period were homosexual. The Roman historian Tacitus writes:

... in order to abolish that rumor, Nero falsely accused and executed with the most exquisite punishments those people called Christians ...And perishing they were additionally made into sports: they were killed by dogs by having the hides of beasts attached to them, or they were nailed to crosses or set aflame, and, when the daylight passed away, they were used as nighttime lamps ... people began to pity these sufferers, because they were consumed not for the public good but on account of the fierceness of one man.

Included among the other gay emperors were Caligula and the tyrannical Tiberius, who did not trust the Senate and saw to the assassination of dozens of equestrians and Senators. Caligula was known to be insane and was famous for excessive cruelty, incestuous relationships with his sisters, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Caligula also ordered his cousin Gemellus killed in order to avoid having to share the powers of the throne with him.
Nero As Beast of the Apocalypse

Friedrich Engels, in his work "On the History of Early Christianity," writes about 1st-century Christians and their beliefs regarding the Beast of the Apocalypse. Described but not explicitly identified in the Book of Revelation, the Beast was expected to be the resurrected spirit of the criminally insane Nero. Engels relied upon interpretations of Revelation by German biblical scholars. As viewed by Engels, Revelation is all about the early Christians' desire for harsh vengeance against Nero for the cruel persecution he initiated against their martyred brothers after the fire swept through Rome. Revelation incorporates metaphors based upon the number 7, because of the 7 hills of Rome. Further, there were 7 first-century Roman emperors. The Beast of 7 Heads was expected to be the resurrected spirit of one of these emperors. Of additional interest in Revelation is God's opening of the 7 seals. Revelation says that the opening of each seal is followed by all sorts of miraculous menacing signs, and "when the 5th seal is opened, John sees under the alter of God the souls of the martyrs of Christ who were slain for the word of God," and who are crying for vengeance. The 5th emperor in the succession beginning with Augustus, the 1st of the 7, was the degenerate madman Nero.

But there's more. Engels points out that, according to the numerological system for letters of the Hebrew alphabet, the phrase Emperor Nero adds up to 666. In Revelation this is the number of the Beast. Further, he says that this association with Nero was commonly known among Christians of the time. In plain terms, they hated Nero and wanted God to unleash his wrath upon him. It is reasonable to suspect that part of their resentment was fueled by the effects of centuries of oppression by the homosexual Graeco-Roman patriarchs who had made a practice of sexually abusing male slaves, boys, and prisoners of war. Engels emphasizes that the early Christians were largely the underdogs of society and included many slaves and emancipated slaves -- the very class of people most vulnerable to sexual exploitation by homosexuals.

St. Augustine the Woman-Hater

Another prominent homosexual character from the days of the Roman Empire was St. Augustine (354-430 AD), described by Russell as "one of the greatest fathers of the Roman Catholic Church, a thinker who changed the course of Western civilization." Russell continues:

He adumbrated notions of sin, perversion, and the relationship between good and evil that have so permeated our thought ... Augustine condemned most sexual acts, even those performed by married couples. Sex for procreation was, for Augustine, the only moral sexual act -- and even that was distasteful ... More than anyone else, Augustine furthered Christianity's long attempt to suppress any physical expressions of love except those that resulted in children.

Augustine appears to bear a great deal of responsibility for the Catholic Church's long-standing tradition of teaching women to fear and despise their sexuality. Offering more evidence of male homosexual contempt for effeminacy, Russell also described Augustine as "a thorough-going misogynist," who was "particularly disgusted by men who allowed their bodies to be used 'as that of a woman.'" Russell says that Augustine engaged in homosexual affairs when he was young but later felt "disgust" at his younger self.

Re: Do You Think The Congressional Page Program Should Be Terminated?
« Reply #27 on: October 14, 2006, 05:00:55 AM »
Rape of Male Slaves by Greek Homosexual Patriarchs

Along with supposedly elevating "standards of culture," Hattersley heaps praise on the imperialist conqueror Alexander for increasing "human freedom and dignity." A good example of these "high standards" which gay writers admire in ancient Greece might be found in the writings of Michel Foucault, who is considered to be an intellectual leader in gay literary circles. Confirming that butch homosexual males in ancient Greece feared being feminized in their sexual relations, he observes that the use of male slaves helped resolve this problem. Even the Greeks had a problem with being the passive partner in a love relationship. For a Greek nobleman to make love to a passive male slave was natural, since the slave was by nature an inferior; but when 2 Greek men of the same social class made love it was a real problem because neither felt he should humble himself before the other.

Today homosexuals still have this problem. Most homosexuals feel that the passive role is in some way demeaning. S & M [sadomasochism] has actually helped alleviate this problem somewhat. Of supreme interest is Foucault's belief that men captured by military conquest were "by nature" inferior and therefore suitable for the "female" role in anal intercourse. He appears to rely on this to justify their enslavement for sexual exploitation by privileged homosexual men in Athenian society. The passage simultaneously betrays the general contempt for womanhood among homosexual men along with Foucault's own tolerance of slavery and rape. The idea of sadomasochism is nothing more than academic window-dressing used in a shallow attempt to dignify the gays' inner craving for violence and domination. Of Foucault, Russell writes:

"Limit experiences," like sadomasochism particularly interested him. On that subject, he said, "I don't think that this movement of sexual practices has anything to do with the disclosure of the uncovering of S/M tendencies deep within our unconscious. I think that S/M is much more than that; it's the real creation of new possibilities of pleasure ..."

The Homosexist Patriarchy

Returning to the myth of Ganymede, Mia Gibson writes that, according to Apollodorus, "this myth emphasized the victory of patriarchy over matriarchy." She continues:

This [myth] showed that men did not need women to exist, therefore they did not need the attentions of women. The philosopher Plato used this myth to justify his sexual feelings towards his all male pupils.

Plato also was the author of The Symposium a dialogue among six Greek males praising the God Eros. Yves Bonnefoy writes:

The sexual relationship to which all of the participants [in The Symposium] without exception gave the highest value is uncontestedly the sexual relation between masculine partners. . . .Sexual relations between male and female partners come second, in that this type of relationship, beyond allowing for sexual satisfaction, assures the procreation of children. Finally, in last place is the relationship between female partners ..."

While the male homosexual elite maintained its grip on Greek society, women were excluded from public life and were considered of little value for anything other than sexual satisfaction and breeding. Feminists and lesbians who believe that gay males are their allies in the struggle against "heterosexist patriarchy" are encouraged to rethink their position. Their real enemy might very well be the kind of homosexist patriarchy which enjoyed a high degree of political power in "gay-friendly" ancient Greece. According to gay writer Felice Picano, some feminists are aware of the dangers of allowing a gay male elite to establish hegemeny over the rest of society. While accusing them of spreading fear about the "so-called 'gay clone agenda,' " he gives an adequate summary of their viewpoint:

"I recall a private conversation in which feminists outlined to me their notion of what an ideal "gay male world" would be like. In this scenario, women have even less respect and less power than in our current misogynistic set-up, because aside from a few women allowed in as decoration, women would simply have no raison d'être except as breeding machines."

Homosexuality and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition

Homosexual male elites routinely abused boys and male slaves when the ancient world was being dominated by Greeks and Romans. The search for relief from this oppression may have been a big factor in the eventual establishment of the Judaeo-Christian ethic, with its condemnation of homosexuality. This hypothesis is tacitly suggested in a 1933 article in The Nation by Ludwig Lewisohn, who observed that the Nazi movement was "in fact and by certain aspects of its avowed ideology drenched through and through with homo-erotic feeling and practice." He also wrote that the Nazis identified with the ancient Greeks and were "well-purged of Judaeo-Christian inhibitions" while "returning to the noble practices of their Greek ancestors," although encumbered by "an obscure feeling of guilt inherited from 1,500 years of apparent submission to the Judaeo-Christian ethic."

Re: Do You Think The Congressional Page Program Should Be Terminated?
« Reply #28 on: October 14, 2006, 06:07:01 PM »
Without praising the below-mentioned, while deploring the Judaeo-Christian reaction to the atrocity and madness of the Graeco-Roman homosexist patriarchy, I'm posting a list of homosexual/bisexual rulers and when they ruled

1.  King Alexander the Great of Macedonia, 336-323 BC
2.  King Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedonia, 294-288 BC
3.  King Antiochus I of Macedonia, 280-261 BC
4.  King Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia, 276-239 BC
5.  King Ptolemy VII of Egypt, 221-205 BC
6.  Emperor Gaozu of China, 206-194 BC
7.  King Ptolemy IV of Egype, 145-244 BC
8.  Emperor Wu of China, 140-86 BC
9.  King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, early 1st century BC
10. Julius Cesar, counsul of Rome, 60-44 BC
11. Emperior Augustus of Rome, 31 BC to AD 14
12. Emperior Ai of China, 6 BC to AD 1
13. Emperior Tiberius of Rome, 14-37
14. Emperior Caligula of Rome, 37-41
15. Emperior Claudius I of Rome, 41-54
16. Emperior Nero of Rome, 54-68
17. Emperior Otho of Rome, January-April 69
18. Emperior Domitian of Rome, 81-96
19. Emperior Nerva of Rome, 96-98
20. Emperior Trajan of Rome, 98-117
21. Emperior Hadrian of Rome, 117-138
22. Emperior Commodus of Rome, 180-192
23. Emperior Heliogabalus of Rome, 218-222
24. Emperior Wei Wen of China, 220-227
25. Emperior Jin Diyi of China, 336-371
26. Emperior Valentian III of Rome, 425-455
27. Emperior Lian Jianwen of China, 550-551
28. Emperior Michael II of the Byzantine Empire, 741-775
29. Al-Hakem II, ruler of C¢rdoba (Spain), 961-976
30. Hisham II, ruler of C¢rdoba (Spain), 965-1013
31. Emperor Basil II of the Byzantine Empire, 976-1025
32. Sebktigin, founder of the Ghaznavid Empire (Afghanistan), 10th century
33. Emperor Mahmud of Ghazni (Afghanistan), 997-1030
34. Emperor Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire, 1025-1028
35. Emperor Constantine IX of the Byzantine Empire, 1042-1055
36. Al-Mutamid, ruler of Seville (Spain), 1069-1090
37. King William II of England, 1087-1100
38. King Richard I (The Lion-Hearted) of England, 1198-1199
39. Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick II, 1212-1250
40. King Edward II of England, 1307-1327
41. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, shogun of Japan, 1368-1394
42. Sultan Beyazid I of the Ottoman Empire, 1389-1402
43. King Juan II of Castile and Le¢n (Spain), 1406-1454
44. King Enrique IV of Castile (Spain), 1454-1474
45. Sultan Mehmed (Muhammad) II of the Ottoman Empire, 1451-1481
46. King Charles IX of France, 1560-1574
47. Oda Nobunaga, military dictator of Japan, 1568-1582
48. King Henri III of France, 1574-1589
49. Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II of Germany, 1576-1612; king of Bohemia (Czechoslavakia), 1575-1611; king of Hungary, 1572-1608
50. King James I of England, 1603-1625; king of Scotland (as James IV), 1567-1625
51. Emperor Jahangir of India, 1605-1627
52. King Louis XIII of France, 1610-1643
53. Tokugawa Iemitsu, shogun of Japan, 1622-1651
54. Queen Christina of Sweden, 1632-1654
55. Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, shogun of Japan, 1680-1709
56. King William III of England, 1689-1702
57. King Charles XII of Sweden, 1697-1718
58. Queen Anne of England, 1702-1714
59. Empress Anne Ioannovna of Russia, 1730-1740
60. Fredrick II (The Great) of Prussia, 1740-1786
61. Empress Catherine II (The Great) of Russia, 1762-1796
62. Christian VII of Denmark, 1766-1808
63. Kamran, emir of Afghanistan, early 19th century
64. King Charles XV of Sweden, 1859-1872
65. King Ludwig II of Bavaria, 1864-1886
66. King Abd Al-Rahman of Afghanistan, 1880-1901
67. King Mwanga of Buganda (Uganda), 1884-1897
68. King Gustavus V of Sweden, 1907-1950
69. King Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, 1908-1918
70. King Rama VI of Thailand, 1910-1925
71. King Amunullah Kahn of Afghanistan, 1919-1929
72. President Manuel Aza¤a of Spain, 1931-1933, 1936-1939

Former Rep. Gerry Studds dies in Boston
« Reply #29 on: October 14, 2006, 07:21:17 PM »
Gerry Eastman Studds (born May 12, 1937) is a retired American politician, born in Mineola, New York. He served as a Democratic Congressman for Massachusetts from 1973 until 1997. He was the first openly homosexual member of the US Congress and, more generally, the first openly gay national politician in the US. In 1983, he admitted to having a sexual relationship with a 17-year-old male page in 1973 and was censured by the House of Representatives.


Studds attended Yale University, from which he received a bachelor's degree in history in 1959 and a master's degree in 1961. Following graduation Studds was a foreign service officer in the State Department and then an assistant in the Kennedy White House, where he worked to establish a domestic Peace Corps. Later, he became a teacher at a St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire.


Studds made his first run for public Congress in 1970, but lost to the incumbent Republican representative in a close election. In his second bid, in 1972, Studds succeeded, becoming the first Democrat in 50 years to win what had been considered a safe Republican seat.

Congressional page sex scandal

Studds was a central figure in the 1983 Congressional page sex scandal, when he and Representative Dan Crane were censured by the House of Representatives for separate sexual relationships with minors – in Studds's case, a 1973 relationship with a 17-year-old male congressional page who was of the age of legal consent, according to state law at the time. The relationship was consensual, but presented ethical concerns relating to working relationships with subordinates.

During the course of the House Ethics Committee's investigation, Studds publicly acknowledged his homosexuality, a disclosure that, according to a Washington Post article, "apparently was not news to many of his constituents." Studds stated in an address to the House, "It is not a simple task for any of us to meet adequately the obligations of either public or private life, let alone both, but these challenges are made substantially more complex when one is, as I am, both an elected public official and gay." He acknowledged that it had been inappropriate to engage in a relationship with a subordinate, and said his actions represented "a very serious error in judgement."

Nonetheless, when the House voted to censure Studds, on July 20, 1983, by a vote of 420-3, as the House read its censure motion aloud, Studds turned his back on the speaker and members in the chamber and ignored them. In addition to the censure, the Democratic leadership stripped Studds of his chairmanship of the House Merchant Marine subcommittee. Studds was later appointed chair of the House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. Studds recieved standing ovations, not in Congress as has been reported, but in his home district at his first town meeting following his congressional censure.

Continued service

Studds was re-elected to 5 more terms after the censure. He fought for many issues, including environmental and maritime issues, gay marriage, AIDS funding, and civil rights, particularly for homosexuals.

After Congress

Since retiring from Congress in 1997, Studds has been a lobbyist for the fishing industry. Studds previously worked for two years as executive director of the New Bedford Oceanarium, a facility still under development. Studds and his longtime partner, Dean T. Hara, who have been together since 1991, applied for a marriage license on May 18 and were married in Boston on May 24, 2005, one week after same-sex marriages became legal in Massachusetts. The Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, which sits at the mouth of Massachusetts Bay, is named for Studds.

By Scott Malone

BOSTON (Reuters) - Former U.S. Rep. Gerry Studds, a Massachusetts Democrat who was censured in 1983 for having a sexual relationship with a 17-year-old congressional intern, died on Saturday at Boston Medical Center, an official said. Christian Kiriakos, the hospital's central administrator, said Studds, 69, died Saturday morning, but did not provide details on the cause of his death.

Studds was the first member of the U.S. Congress to acknowledge he was gay. When he was censured by the U.S. House of Representatives in 1983 for his relationship with the male page, Studds stood defiantly on the floor with his back turned to his fellow lawmakers as the charges against him were read. Interns, formally known as congressional pages, are high school students who work on Capitol Hill as junior assistants to federal lawmakers.

Following the scandal, Studds, whose district included the Cape Cod beach resort, was re-elected numerous times. He served 12 terms before retiring in 1997. "Gerry was a stalwart champion of New England's fishing families as well as a committed environmentalist who worked hard to demonstrate that the cause of working people and the cause of the environment go hand-in-hand with the right leadership," Massachusetts Democratic Sen. John Kerry said.

"Gerry was also an inspiration to huge numbers of gay and lesbian Americans across our country to be open, honest and proud of who they are." Massachusetts legalized same-sex marriage in 2003, with the first such marriages taking place in 2004. Studds married his partner Dean Hara that year, according to local media reports. "Gerry Studds was really a pioneer in being the first openly gay member of Congress," said Marc Solomon, campaign director for MassEquality, a state gay marriage advocacy group. "As the first openly gay member of Congress he increased the visibility for gays and lesbians." The Studds page scandal has been compared to one involving former Rep. Mark Foley, a Florida Republican who resigned last month amid news accounts of lurid Internet communications sent to former pages.