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after virtue

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Re: 1 year later....still glad u went to law school?
« Reply #490 on: December 01, 2008, 07:57:28 PM »

[...] It is practically impossible to get residency spots in the highly competitive specialties like Radiology, Orthopedics and Dermatology being an IMG, US or non-US one. You end up as a general family practice physician or internal medicine resident, specialties which pay much less than the highly sought-after specialties such as Surgery, Anesthesiology, Obstetrics/gynecology, etc.

Equally important, almost all training slots filled by IMGs are in teaching hospitals in large urban areas that have traditionally served large numbers of minorities, uninsured, and low-income patients. It is a bit easier for US-IMGs compared to non-US IMGs. The latter, for example, who usually are on J-1 Visas (with 80% of these physicians actually staying in the US) are compelled to practice in designated rural or inner city physician shortage areas in order to have the "2-year return" requirement for J-1 visa waived. Both the initial training location and the subsequent service locations of IMGs frequently put them in minority communities where other doctors are scarce. In essence IMGs provide primary care to poor and underserved populations, with many inner-city hospitals in the U.S. relying almost exclusively on IMGs to provide services to America's poor.


Honey, I've been a dirty stinky Indian all my life and I can tell ya it's not like that ... several friends of mine (poor, stinky Indian b i t c h e s, if you like!) have been able to get some pretty damn good residencies in the US.

A very dear friend of mine just recently began Rheumatology fellowship at a quite good hospital after having finished the 3-year Internal Medicine residency. It'll take 3 years for the fellowship to be completed and my friend is looking at some $200,000 per annum - not bad at all for someone who lived all the time in a city like Calcutta or Bombay! :)


harrisons, my dear, you are simply lying - you can't be from India when you talk about a city, calling it by its old name! Once-Bombay now is called Mumbai!

And BTW, you may well want to examine your thoughts and beliefs, cuz it seems to be you are racist as well!

Four,Christmases

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Re: 1 year later....still glad u went to law school?
« Reply #491 on: December 01, 2008, 09:56:09 PM »
after virtue, don't you think you're taking it too far? Try to be a little bit more open-minded!

apropos

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Re: 1 year later....still glad u went to law school?
« Reply #492 on: December 03, 2008, 06:42:07 PM »


This has come to be known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The physicist Werner Heisenberg suggested that just by observing quantum matter, we affect the behavior of that matter. Thus, we can never be fully certain of the nature of a quantum object or its attributes, like velocity and location. This idea is supported by the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. Posed by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, this interpretation says that all quantum particles don't exist in one state or the other, but in all of its possible states at once. The sum total of possible states of a quantum object is called its wave function. The state of an object existing in all of its possible states at once is called its superposition. According to Bohr, when we observe a quantum object, we affect its behaviour. Observation breaks an object's superposition and essentially forces the object to choose one state from its wave function. This theory accounts for why physicists have taken opposite measurements from the same quantum object: The object "chose" different states during different measurements.


Speaking of Heisenberg, the inventor of the 'uncertainty principle': he thought Heraclitus (you know who Heraclitus is, don'tcha) views only needed a bit of tweaking to bring them totally up-to-date:

Quote
Modern physics is in some ways extremely near to the doctrines of Heraclitus. If we replace the word 'fire' by the word 'energy' we can repeat this statement word for word from our modern point of view. Energy is in fact the substance from which all elementary particles, all atoms and therefore all things are made, and energy is that which moves... Energy may be called the fundamental cause for all change in the world.

By the way, Heraclitus was an aristocrat who lived on the Ionian cost of Greece. His preference for composing short, almost paradoxical philosophical epigrams later earned him the sobriquet 'the Dark'. But it is an innocuous-looking dictum about rivers that has made his reputation. You cannot step into the same river twice. Heracliteanism became a doctrine encapsulated by Plato as the view that "all is flux." But Plato himself was echoing Cratylus, who had only earlier decided for himself what it was that Heraclitus must have meant. Cratylus' idea that everything was changing all the time was then taken up by Empedocles, who embellished the other Heraclitean notion of a world continually torn between the two evocatively named forces, 'love' and 'strife', in order to reveal its essential character. The world becomes a sphere of perfect love in which strife, like a swirling vortex, has infiltrated. Whose idea was it, then? Heraclitus', or Cratylus', or...? It keeps changing.

But in any case, the point about the river seems to have been a more prosaic one to do with the nature of human experience. We encounter things all the time as being different, but behind the appearance of diversity is a more important and more fundamental unity: "cold things grow hot, the hot cools, the wet dries, the parched moistens." Not that Heraclitus is saying that the senses are deceived, for "whatever comes from sight, hearing, experience, this I privilege," he adds. Even life and death are as one, Heraclitus continues. "The same living and dead, what is awake and what sleeps, young and old... for those changed are those, and those changed around are these." The opposites are united by change: they change into each other. And change is the fundamental reality of the universe. The highest, 'divine' perspective sees all the opposites: "day and night, winter and summer, war and peace, plenty and famine," all are the same. With the divine perspective, even good and evil are the same.

Two thousand years later, Professor Hegel found in Heraclitus' swirling vortex of the unity of opposites the kernel of a new 'world philosophy', the origins of 'speculative logic', and the historical notion of perpetual change. For your information, it was not the first time Hegel was borrowing or echoing, whatever you wanna call it. In 1766, Johan Titius translated into German "Contemplation de la Nature" by the French natural philosopher Bonnet, where the latter remarks that maybe there are more planets in our solar system than were known at his time. Titus added to this remark that one may notice that the distances of the planets from one another can be approximated by a sequence of numbers that can be generated by an algorithm that is known as the 'Titius Bode Law.' Hegel's dissertation (1801) "De orbitis planetarum" revolves around the discussion of the Titius-Bode law and likely influenced his concept of history as a series of successive epochs from the Prehistoric and Asian, through Ancient, Feudal, Industrial and post-Industrial Stages. The predictive power of the Titus-Bode Law was improved by Stephen Phillips' formulation of the Titius-Bode-Phillips Spiral Algorithm, after he interposed Hegelian dialectic spiral of historical development on the photograph of the Whirlpool Galaxy, captured by the Hubble telescope.

At any rate, Hegel's battle between thesis and antithesis, searching for synthesis, led directly both to Marx's dialectical materialism and to the fascist idealogy of the purifying powers of conflict and war. But then, Heraclitus himself had declared: "You must know that war is common to all things, and strife is justice." It is only the heat of battle that can "prove some to be gods and others to be mere men, by turning the latter into slaves and the former into masters." Actually, there is another way of looking at Heraclitus. At the same time as he was outlining his theory of perpetual, cyclical change, the Chinese sage Lao Tzu was explaining the cyclical nature of the Tao, manifested in the famous interplay of yin and yang. But that is another story altogether.

 

Ciao bella

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Announcement Regarding Fraudulent Letters of Recommendation
« Reply #493 on: December 04, 2008, 09:09:06 PM »

Honey, I've been a dirty stinky Indian all my life and I can tell ya it's not like that ... several friends of mine (poor, stinky Indian b i t c h e s, if you like!) have been able to get some pretty damn good residencies in the US.

A very dear friend of mine just recently began Rheumatology fellowship at a quite good hospital after having finished the 3-year Internal Medicine residency. It'll take 3 years for the fellowship to be completed and my friend is looking at some $200,000 per annum - not bad at all for someone who lived all the time in a city like Calcutta or Bombay! :)


My boyfriend is a physician and he says some programs don't even require USCE (US Clinical Experience), but in order to make yourself a more desirable applicant you should get some. The experience should be as long as possible with hands-on work. It's VERY important that you get good LORs (letters of recommendation) from US physicians. Ideally, you should try for at least 1month per attachments. I've come across programs which require IMG applicants to have 12 months of USCE.

As for how to get USCE, you have to be creative. The most straight forward way is to get busy on the phone and email and contact all the programs/hospitals listed on FRIEDA and ask them if you can spend a couple of months with them. Most hospitals have a Continuing/Graduate Medical Education (CME or GME) department who will deal with this. VA hospital are apparently more easy to get placements at. If you're still a medical student then you are at an advantage as you can still apply for an externship which will allow you to obtain Hands-on USCE which is like GOLD! However, if you leave it until you graduate then it becomes really (REALLY) difficult to get an externship and most hospitals will only offer Observerships which technically do not allow hands-on work which will mean that your LOR from here probably won't be able to comment on your clinical skills, and consequently will not help you much in applications. A research job is probably best but most places are going to want a several month or year commitment.


So problematic are LORs that on Sep 30 a special announcement regarding fraudulent LoRs was issued:

Examples of fraudulent letters of recommendation include, but are not limited to:

  • writing a letter of recommendation for yourself and signing another person's name to make the letter appear to be authored by another person;
  • altering parts of an authentic letter of recommendation given to you by the letter writer; and
  • signing another person's name to a letter of recommendation, even if you believe that person approves of your signing the letter on his/her behalf.

Birkena

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Re: 1 year later....still glad u went to law school?
« Reply #494 on: December 05, 2008, 10:27:12 PM »

Two thousand years later, Professor Hegel found in Heraclitus' swirling vortex of the unity of opposites the kernel of a new 'world philosophy', the origins of 'speculative logic', and the historical notion of perpetual change. [...]

At any rate, Hegel's battle between thesis and antithesis, searching for synthesis, led directly both to Marx's dialectical materialism and to the fascist idealogy of the purifying powers of conflict and war. [...]
 


Hegel's dialectic

Marx as defender of the dialectic

In the Communist Manifesto, Marx defends the Hegelian dialectic. Or rather, he defends it against the attempt to break with it that is concentrated in capitalism. He exposes this attempt as really only a dialectical redoubling that does not escape from the dialectic. We can see this in the passage where he recasts the Hegelian master/slave relationship into the bourgeoisie/proletariat relationship. The second is actually the truth of the former -- that is, in less Hegelian terms, the bourgeoisie/proletariat relationship is the dialectical overcoming of the antagonism or contradiction between the master/slave relationship. Instead of exploiting the slave, the master here tries to take care of the worker so that the worker can continue to work. This allows both master and slave to work for the master's master, work itself. But what is crucial about this is that the "taking care of" here or "feeding" of the slave is only feeding the slave such that the worker's work -- and not the worker himself -- can continue. The emphasis is upon work abstracted from the existence of the slave that provides the work. Thus the slave sinks below the conditions that he would be under if he were wrapped up in the feudal master/slave dialectic, because the master here is not concerned with his existence -- the master is "incompetent to assure the continued existence" of the slave, as Marx puts it. The slave cannot properly be a slave under capitalism. That is, it cannot be assured as to whether he will exist as a slave: his bare existence is threatened in the face of the abstract labor-power he temporarily embodies. Marx says:

Quote
Hitherto, every form of society has been based, as we have already seen, on the antagonism of oppressing and oppressed classes. But in order to oppress a class, certain conditions must be assured to it under which it can, at least, continue its slavish existence. The serf, in the period of serfdom, raised himself to membership in the commune, just as the petty bourgeois, under the yoke of the feudal absolutism, managed to develop into a bourgeois. The modern laborer, on the contrary, instead of rising with the process of industry, sinks deeper and deeper below the conditions of existence of his own class. He becomes a pauper, and pauperism develops more rapidly than population and wealth. And here it becomes evident that the bourgeoisie is unfit any longer to be the ruling class in society, and to impose its conditions of existence upon society as an overriding law. It is unfit to rule because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave within his slavery, because it cannot help letting him sink into such a state, that it has to feed him, instead of being fed by him. Society can no longer live under this bourgeoisie, in other words, its existence is no longer compatible with society.


The less you read books, the less you go to the theatre, the less you think, love, theorize, sign, paint, the more you save.
The less you are, the more you have.
The less you express yourself, the more alienated you become.

tropez

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Re: Residency "MATCH Formula" GUIDE for IMGs
« Reply #495 on: December 07, 2008, 08:46:12 PM »

Honey, I've been a dirty stinky Indian all my life and I can tell ya it's not like that ... several friends of mine (poor, stinky Indian b i t c h e s, if you like!) have been able to get some pretty damn good residencies in the US.

A very dear friend of mine just recently began Rheumatology fellowship at a quite good hospital after having finished the 3-year Internal Medicine residency. It'll take 3 years for the fellowship to be completed and my friend is looking at some $200,000 per annum - not bad at all for someone who lived all the time in a city like Calcutta or Bombay! :)


My boyfriend is a physician and he says some programs don't even require USCE (US Clinical Experience), but in order to make yourself a more desirable applicant you should get some. The experience should be as long as possible with hands-on work. It's VERY important that you get good LORs (letters of recommendation) from US physicians. Ideally, you should try for at least 1month per attachments. I've come across programs which require IMG applicants to have 12 months of USCE.

As for how to get USCE, you have to be creative. The most straight forward way is to get busy on the phone and email and contact all the programs/hospitals listed on FRIEDA and ask them if you can spend a couple of months with them. Most hospitals have a Continuing/Graduate Medical Education (CME or GME) department who will deal with this. VA hospital are apparently more easy to get placements at. If you're still a medical student then you are at an advantage as you can still apply for an externship which will allow you to obtain Hands-on USCE which is like GOLD! However, if you leave it until you graduate then it becomes really (REALLY) difficult to get an externship and most hospitals will only offer Observerships which technically do not allow hands-on work which will mean that your LOR from here probably won't be able to comment on your clinical skills, and consequently will not help you much in applications. A research job is probably best but most places are going to want a several month or year commitment.


Most Program directors will score your ERAS application based on the following "33 Score Formula":

1. USMLE Score from Score 1---> 5 (ECFMG Transcripts)

5 points for 220+ 1st attempt
4 points for 200+ 1st attempt
3 points for Pass 1st attempt
2 points for Pass 2nd attempt
1 points for Pass 3+ attempts

Step 1 = 1-5
Step 2CK = 1-5
Step 2CS = 1-3

MAX Score = 13 and MIN Score = 3


Just curious, how long does it usually take for Indians (and other foreign physicians) to take USMLEs? I've heard U.S. med students study like 25 days for each of these exams and do just fine. I'm trying to think, do international medical graduates spend months, instead of days, to study for the exams (learning the material in a foreign language, not being familiar with the exams' format, and the like). The reason I'm asking is 'cuz an acquaintance of mine is taking them and she's like, "Hey, I'm giving birth to the entire world here"...

shalit

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Re: 1 year later....still glad u went to law school?
« Reply #496 on: December 08, 2008, 10:08:32 PM »

Speaking of Heisenberg, the inventor of the 'uncertainty principle': he thought Heraclitus (you know who Heraclitus is, don'tcha) views only needed a bit of tweaking to bring them totally up-to-date:

Quote
Modern physics is in some ways extremely near to the doctrines of Heraclitus. If we replace the word 'fire' by the word 'energy' we can repeat this statement word for word from our modern point of view. Energy is in fact the substance from which all elementary particles, all atoms and therefore all things are made, and energy is that which moves... Energy may be called the fundamental cause for all change in the world.

 

I guess it looks much more reasonable - it ain't easy at all to figure out what he meant by "All is fire."

left foot

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Ta panta rei
« Reply #497 on: December 09, 2008, 06:16:54 PM »

I guess it looks much more reasonable - it ain't easy at all to figure out what he meant by "All is fire."


I would guess since impermanence is the true nature of the universe, everything is changing, everything is in flux. "All is fire" would mean that everything is burning itself out, always changing. Heraclitus held that fire is the primordial substance of the universe and that all things are in perpetual flux. In more detail, what he said was,

Quote
This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made; but it was ever, is now, and ever shall be an ever-lasting Fire, with measures kindling and measures going out.


We can take the words, '...was ever, is now, and ever shall be, an everlasting Fire', to embody two quintessential concepts:

  • '...was ever, is now, and ever shall be...' simply means that the universe has always been. That is, there has never been any need for it to start, with a big bang or anything else;
  • '...an everlasting Fire.' is Heraclitus's way of saying that the universe is a process. As Bertrand Russell puts it in his "History of Western Philosophy," "fire is something continually changing, and its permanence is rather that of a process than that of a substance."

Basically, the universe has always been and always will be in a process of becoming.

The universe was seen to begin from a state in which all is fire. This generates the elements (air, fire, earth and water) from which the world we are familiar with is created. This will end in fire and the whole cycle will start again. In this scheme of things, the active elements fire and air (or the hot and the cold) form breath or pneuma, the sustaining cause of all existing bodies. There are various kinds of pneuma, and the kinds associated with plants and animals guide the growth and development of animate bodies. Pneuma acts, and is therefore conceived to be body, playing its role by blending with matter. So what we appear to have is a world of dynamic process. In Alchemy or Western Hermeticism -- a variant on Eastern Esotericism -- we find:

X.
Sulphur
Mercury
Salt


Flamma
Natura
Mater

X.
Spiritus
Aqua
Sangus

These three are all quaternaries completed by their Root, Fire. The Spirit, beyond Manifested Nature, is the Fiery BREATH in its absolute Unity. In the Manifested Universe, it is the Central Spiritual Sun, the electric Fire of all Life. In our System it is the visible Sun, the Spirit of Nature, the terrestrial God. And in, on, and around the Earth, the fiery spirit thereof -- Air, the fluidic Fire; Water, liquid Fire; Earth, solid Fire. All is Fire -- Ignis, in its ultimate constitution, or I, the root of which is O (nought) in our conceptions, the All in Nature and its Mind. "Pro-Metor" is divine Fire. It is the Creator, the Destroyer, the Preserver. The primitive names of the Gods are all connected with fire, from Agni, the Aryan, to the Jewish God who is a "consuming fire."

unexceptionabl

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Quantum Zeno effect
« Reply #498 on: December 11, 2008, 10:24:32 PM »


This has come to be known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The physicist Werner Heisenberg suggested that just by observing quantum matter, we affect the behavior of that matter. Thus, we can never be fully certain of the nature of a quantum object or its attributes, like velocity and location. This idea is supported by the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. Posed by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, this interpretation says that all quantum particles don't exist in one state or the other, but in all of its possible states at once. The sum total of possible states of a quantum object is called its wave function. The state of an object existing in all of its possible states at once is called its superposition. According to Bohr, when we observe a quantum object, we affect its behaviour. Observation breaks an object's superposition and essentially forces the object to choose one state from its wave function. This theory accounts for why physicists have taken opposite measurements from the same quantum object: The object "chose" different states during different measurements.


An unstable particle, if observed continuously, will never decay. One can nearly "freeze" the evolution of the system by measuring it frequently enough in its (known) initial state. The meaning of the term has since expanded, leading to a more technical definition: time evolution can be suppressed not only by measurement: The quantum Zeno effect is the suppression of unitary time evolution caused by quantum decoherence in quantum systems provided by a variety of sources: measurement, interactions with the environment, stochastic fields, and so on. As an outgrowth of study of the quantum Zeno effect, it has become clear that application to a system of sufficiently strong and fast pulses with appropriate symmetry also can decouple the system from its decohering environment. The name comes from Zeno's arrow paradox which states that, since an arrow in flight is not seen to move during any single instant, it cannot possibly be moving at all.

An earlier theoretical exploration of this effect of measurement was published in 1974 by Degasperis et al. and Alan Turing described it in 1954:

Quote
It is easy to show using standard theory that if a system starts in an eigenstate of some observable, and measurements are made of that observable N times a second, then, even if the state is not a stationary one, the probability that the system will be in the same state after, say, one second, tends to one as N tends to infinity; that is, that continual observations will prevent motion...

resulting in the earlier name Turing paradox. The idea is contained in the early work by John von Neumann, sometimes called the reduction postulate. According to the reduction postulate, each measurement causes the wavefunction to "collapse" to a pure eigenstate of the measurement basis. In the context of this effect, an "observation" can simply be the absorption of a particle, without an observer in any conventional sense. However, there is controversy over the interpretation of the effect, sometimes referred to as the "measurement problem" in traversing the interface between microscopic and macroscopic. Closely related (and sometimes not distinguished from the quantum Zeno effect) is the watchdog effect, in which the time evolution of a system is affected by its continuous coupling to the environment.

Sinica

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Eigenstate.Eigenmode.Eigenfunction
« Reply #499 on: December 12, 2008, 01:24:17 PM »

[...] The idea is contained in the early work by John von Neumann, sometimes called the reduction postulate. According to the reduction postulate, each measurement causes the wavefunction to "collapse" to a pure eigenstate of the measurement basis. [...]


Quantum states, just like functions, harmonic modes, and frequencies can be treated as vectors. In these cases, the concept of direction loses its ordinary meaning, and is given an abstract definition. Even so, if this abstract direction is unchanged by a given linear transformation, the prefix "eigen" is used, as in eigenfunction, eigenmode, eigenstate, and eigenfrequency.

Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace


In this shear mapping of the Mona Lisa, the picture was deformed in such a way that its central vertical axis (red vector) has not changed direction, but the diagonal vector (blue) has changed direction. Hence the red vector is an eigenvector of the transformation and the blue vector is not. Since the red vector was neither stretched nor compressed, its eigenvalue is 1. All vectors with the same vertical direction i.e., parallel to this vector are also eigenvectors, with the same eigenvalue. Together with the zero-vector, they form the eigenspace for this eigenvalue.

In mathematics, given a linear transformation, an eigenvector of that linear transformation is a nonzero vector which, when that transformation is applied to it, may change in length, but not direction. For each eigenvector of a linear transformation, there is a corresponding scalar value called an eigenvalue for that vector, which determines the amount the eigenvector is scaled under the linear transformation. For example, an eigenvalue of +2 means that the eigenvector is doubled in length and points in the same direction. An eigenvalue of +1 means that the eigenvector is unchanged, while an eigenvalue of −1 means that the eigenvector is reversed in direction. An eigenspace of a given transformation for a particular eigenvalue is the set (linear span) of the eigenvectors associated to this eigenvalue, together with the zero vector (which has no direction).

In linear algebra, every linear transformation between finite-dimensional vector spaces can be expressed as a matrix, which is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns. These concepts play a major role in several branches of both pure and applied mathematics appearing prominently in linear algebra, functional analysis, and to a lesser extent in nonlinear mathematics.

Eigenfunction


This solution of the vibrating drum problem is, at any point in time, an eigenfunction of the Laplace's equation on a disk.

Eigenmode

A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency. The frequencies of the normal modes of a system are known as its natural frequencies or resonant frequencies. A physical object, such as a building or a bridge or a molecule, has a set of normal modes (and corresponding frequencies) that depend on its structure and composition. It is common to use a spring-mass system to illustrate a deformable structure. When such a system is excited at one of these natural frequencies, all of the masses move at the same frequency. The phases of the masses are the same, such that they all pass through both equilibrium and maximum amplitude simultaneously. The practical significance of this can be illustrated by a mass-spring model of a building. If an earthquake excites the system near one of the natural frequencies, the displacement of one floor with respect to another - depending on the mode - can be maximum. Obviously, buildings can only withstand this displacement up to a certain point. Modeling a building by finding its normal modes is an easy way to check the safety of the building's design. The concept of normal modes also finds application in wave theory, optics, quantum mechanics, and molecular dynamics.


Various normal modes in a 1D-lattice.