Law School Discussion

Nine Years of Discussion
;

Author Topic: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN  (Read 11520 times)

adrenaline

  • Newbie
  • *
  • Posts: 2
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #30 on: April 24, 2007, 02:32:53 AM »

LOL ... Reverse psychology .. Kinda similar to the way the the world-wide protests against 2003 war with Iraq actually provoked Bush into going out and doing it his way sooner than he might have ... This principle can be stated as a simple matter of dog training: point out what you don't want -- and he will do it.

As often as one says "I am against war," he is actually sending out to the listener and the cosmic vibes the concept of war. He wants to provide as little attention and energy to what seems to be a problem and as much attention and energy to what seems to offer resolution. One tries not to be 'against' things but rather 'for' an alternative.


;)

Santa Baby

  • Jr. Member
  • **
  • Posts: 6
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #31 on: August 18, 2007, 11:30:20 PM »

This principle can be stated as a simple matter of dog training: point out what you don't want -- and he will do it.


Ivan Petrovich Pavlov conducted some experiments like this I've read. Pavlov's description on how animals (and humans) can be trained to respond in a certain way to a particular stimulus drew tremendous interest from the time he first presented his results. His work paved the way for a new, more objective method of studying behavior. So-called Pavlovian training has been used in many fields, with anti-phobia treatment as but one example. An important principle in conditioned learning is that an established conditioned response (salivating in the case of the dogs) decreases in intensity if the conditioned stimulus (bell) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (food). This process is called extinction.

In order to treat phobias evoked by certain environmental situations, such as heights or crowds, this phenomenon can be used. The patient is first taught a muscle relaxation technique. Then he or she is told , over a period of days, to imagine the fear-producing situation while trying to inhibit the anxiety by relaxation. At the end of the series, the strongest anxiety-provoking situation may be brought to mind without anxiety. This process is called systematic desensitization.

Conditioning forms the basis of much of learned human behavior. Nowadays, this knowledge has also been exploited by commercial advertising. An effective commercial should be able to manipulate the response to a stimulus (like seeing a product's name) which initially does not provoke any feeling. The objective is to train people to make the "false" connection between positive emotions (e.g. happiness or feeling attractive) and the particular brand of consumer goods being advertised.


Is Pavlov with his findings the one that influenced B.F. Skinner?
Sell a man a fish, he eats for a day, teach a man how to fish, you ruin a wonderful business opportunity.

apocryphal

  • Newbie
  • *
  • Posts: 4
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #32 on: August 19, 2007, 08:05:03 PM »
You bet, Santa!

avocation

  • Newbie
  • *
  • Posts: 3
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #33 on: August 19, 2007, 09:50:48 PM »
Exactly, in Pavlov's footsteps Skinner even invented the "operant conditioning chamber." Skinner was a tool of the cryptocracy out to turn people into "obedient automatons."

matty

  • Newbie
  • *
  • Posts: 1
    • View Profile
    • Email
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #34 on: August 20, 2007, 11:03:58 PM »
Get free outlines at http://www.lawschoolstuff.net

V e r a

  • Jr. Member
  • **
  • Posts: 5
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #35 on: December 05, 2007, 03:57:51 PM »
Skinner had the "wonderful" idea to bring up his daughter in a Skinner Box. How anyone could admire this man is beyond me. His book, "Walden Two," is a utopian presentation of how he imagined the application of his theories would work out in real life. Of course, they never have worked out in real life despite his assertions and beliefs. In "Beyond Freedom and Dignity," Skinner put forth the notion that Man had no indwelling personality, nor will, intention, self-determinism or personal responsibility, and that modern concepts of freedom and dignity have to fall away so Man could be intelligently controlled to behave as he should. Despite the fact of the degree of implied human degradation involved, the question always remained just who would decide what Man should be, how he should act, and who would control the controllers? In a traditional behavioral approach, Skinner followed in the footsteps of Pavlov and Watson. This view postulates that the subject matter of human psychology is only the behavior of the human being. Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviorist holds, further, that belief in the existence of consciousness goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic and is useless.

Natalie

  • Newbie
  • *
  • Posts: 1
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #36 on: February 12, 2008, 12:43:41 PM »

Skinner had the "wonderful" idea to bring up his daughter in a Skinner Box. How anyone could admire this man is beyond me. His book, "Walden Two," is a utopian presentation of how he imagined the application of his theories would work out in real life. Of course, they never have worked out in real life despite his assertions and beliefs. In "Beyond Freedom and Dignity," Skinner put forth the notion that Man had no indwelling personality, nor will, intention, self-determinism or personal responsibility, and that modern concepts of freedom and dignity have to fall away so Man could be intelligently controlled to behave as he should. Despite the fact of the degree of implied human degradation involved, the question always remained just who would decide what Man should be, how he should act, and who would control the controllers? In a traditional behavioral approach, Skinner followed in the footsteps of Pavlov and Watson. This view postulates that the subject matter of human psychology is only the behavior of the human being. Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviorist holds, further, that belief in the existence of consciousness goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic and is useless.


A response to behaviorism was cognitive revolution in psychology. One of its main ideas was that by studying and developing successful functions in artificial intelligence and computer science, it becomes possible to make testable inferences about human mental processes. This has been called the reverse-engineering approach. It was not a revolution against behaviorism with the aim of transforming behaviorism into a better way of pursuing psychology by adding a little mentalism to it.

The cognitive approach was brought to prominence by Donald Broadbent's book "Perception and Communication" in 1958. The publication of the book "Cognitive Psychology" by Ulric Neisser in 1967 is also considered an important milestone. Other influential researchers included Noam Chomsky, Herbert Simon and Allen Newell. The cognitive revolution reached its height in the 1980s with publications by philosophers such as Daniel Dennett and artificial intelligence experts like Douglas Hofstadter. Proponents of the movement often cite Chomskian linguistics as an impetus for behaviorism's falling from popular favor. It should be noted, though, that the term "behaviorism" is an umbrella term that encompasses multiple approaches towards behavior. At the time the revolution occurred, the popular "behaviorism" was Kenneth Spence and Clark Hull's Stimulus-Response psychology. Radical behaviorists continued to hold to Skinner's behaviorist model of language acquisition, which some have argued was not adequately refuted by Chomsky's anti-behaviorist arguments.

The rejection of mental states by the behaviorists was based on a philosophical concept known as Occam's Razor. It states that a theory should make the fewest assumptions possible while still accounting for known data. Radical behaviorists argue that data can be accounted for by using observable phenomena and that there is no need to assume a "mental" world exists at a metaphysical level. Cognitive psychologists argued in response that experimental investigation of mental states do allow scientists to produce theories that more reliably predict outcomes. Modern neuroimaging technology has made it possible to observe brain states, but how these correspond to mental structures is still a challenge. The success of the cognitive scientists in predicting and describing human behavior prevailed over the strict behaviorist approach. By the early 1980s the cognitive approach had become the dominant research line in many of the (applied) psychology research fields.

Major research areas in cognitive psychology

Perception

  • General perception
  • Psychophysics
  • Attention and Filter theories (the ability to focus mental effort on specific stimuli whilst excluding other stimuli from consideration)
  • Pattern recognition (the ability to correctly interpret ambiguous sensory information)
  • Object recognition
  • Time sensation (awareness and estimation of the passage of time)


Categorization

  • Category induction and acquisition
  • Categorical judgement and classification
  • Category representation and structure
  • Similarity (psychology)

Memory

  • Aging and memory
  • Autobiographical memory
  • Constructive memory
  • Emotion and memory
  • Episodic memory
  • Eyewitness memory
  • False memories
  • Flashbulb memory
  • List of memory biases
  • Long-term memory
  • Semantic memory
  • Spaced repetition
  • Source monitoring
  • Working memory


Knowledge representation

  • Mental imagery
  • Propositional encoding
  • Imagery versus proposition debate
  • Dual-coding theories
  • Mental models

Numerical cognition

Language

  • Grammar and linguistics
  • Phonetics and phonology
  • Language acquisition


Thinking

  • Choice
  • Concept formation
  • Decision making
  • Judgment and decision making
  • Logic, formal and natural reasoning
  • Problem solving

accosta

  • Newbie
  • *
  • Posts: 3
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #37 on: April 14, 2008, 03:05:35 PM »

Memory

    [...]
    • False memories

     
I saw an interesting post on false memories on another thread .. lemme see if I find it - I may edit my post to include the link here :)

http://www.lawschooldiscussion.org/students/index.php/topic,3243.msg76250.html#msg76250[/list]

LawstCause

  • Full Member
  • ***
  • Posts: 15
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #38 on: April 15, 2008, 08:34:02 AM »
"Psych majors suck balls.   Majorly."  I believe it was Freud who said that.  I find it was the only valid statement ever made by him, and when those psych majors grow up to be attorneys, they tend to increase in their overall ability to suck exponentially.

1LMan

  • Sr. Citizen
  • ****
  • Posts: 129
    • View Profile
Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« Reply #39 on: April 15, 2008, 09:47:21 AM »
Back to the original purpose of this thread: As sad as it is, there often is no correlation between how hard one studies and their grades.  Sure, there is the whole "study smart, not hard" argument.  However, the reality is in law school you will often get grades you never anticipated after taking an exam.  It's the most arbitrary system ever in most law schools and it is just something one deals with.