Law School Discussion

The Da Vinci crock

Re: The Da Vinci crock
« Reply #190 on: May 05, 2009, 11:26:06 AM »

Just imagine the guy taking a dump in a bag to be able to transport it to his superior's place of work! The entire house will smell great! Let's hope he'll do it some place else, on his way to work, in a nearby hotel or something like that!


mayo, do you really think "nearby hotels" are supposed to be your personal bathroom?

The Circle: Paradox and Paradigm
« Reply #191 on: May 09, 2009, 06:24:51 AM »

[...] Vitruvius developed the concept of 'squaring the circle' which basically involves constructing a square with an equal surface area to a circle or visa-versa. DaVinci was fascinated by the ideas that Vitruvius had about squaring the circle. DaVinci's drawing contains both a square and a circle with unequal surface areas. There are clues within the drawing that can be used to 'square the circle' and 'circle the square' [...]


The ultimate desire of mankind is to identify wholeness, to grasp the essence of being, to be integrated with the harmony, perfection, patterns, and cycles of the material, metaphorical and metaphysical worlds. This desire motivates us to explore the realms of fact and fancy, logic and metaphor, reason and emotion, to capture the whole of being in one part, to see it, hear it, feel it, and enjoy it in everyday life. The circle is an object of nature, an idealization of pure mathematics, and a symbol or framework we use to understand and describe our world. The circle exists independently of human thought, as ripples in a pond, or the appearance of the sun and moon, or the shape of the iris of an eye. In mathematics, we choose to define a circle as the places at a constant distance from a center, usually in two dimensions.

The Yin-Yang symbol of two parts spiraling within a circle is a traditional icon of Confucianism and Taoism. It suggests movement around the inside of the circle. It also provides a paradigm of polarity with which to view the dynamics of everyday life. As a symbol, it can be as personal and internal as a heart, which gives and receives blood through each complete cycle. It can also be as general and external as the cycles of day and night.


The yin-yang symbol of Confucianism and Taoism

The Buddhist circular mandala designs have been used continuously for millennia. "A mandala (Sanskrit for "circle") is a symbolic diagram of the universe, arranged in circles, used in tantric Buddhism. The Swiss psychologist Carl Jung considered the mandala to be a universally occurring pattern associated with the mythological representation of the self.


The Mahakala Gonpo-Magpo chakra mandala, by A. T. Mann

Zoroastrianism, the tradition of ancient Persia, is believed by scholars to have been influential in the later development of metaphysical concepts in Abrahamic and Eastern religious beliefs. Its influence survives to our own day, not only in central Asia, but in such products of the European post-Romantic movement as Richard Strauss's music and Friedrich Nietzsche's book, "Thus Spoke Zarathustra." Modern historians have dated the time of Zoroaster to approximately 1750 BC. Also known as Zarathustra, he was the founder of the Zoroastrian tradition. One symbol of Zoroastrianism is the Fra-vahar, a figure that stands for the ideal moral and spiritual focus in life. Fra is the direction, forward, and vahar describes a pulling force. Of the two circles in the figure, the ring in the hand is a reminder that we are bound to keep our promises or agreements with others. The other circle, at the waist, reminds us that our spirits live on, in essence immortal, and so also symbolizes infinity.


The Fra-vahar symbol of Zoroastrianism

Re: The Da Vinci crock
« Reply #192 on: May 09, 2009, 06:37:54 AM »
The circle has represented the divine, as well as the universe and groups of people in it.

Quote
Isaiah said:

"To whom then will ye liken God?
or what likeness will ye compare unto him? ...
Have ye not known? have ye not heard?
hath it not been told you from the beginning?
have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth?
It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth,
and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; ..."

A saying derived from words attributed to Empedocles suggests the ancient Greeks may have also thought of these connections:

The nature of God is a circle of which the center is everywhere and the circumference is nowhere.

The Greeks tried to explain the world, from the mystical to the scientific. The Pythagoreans developed geometrical relations for much of the world around them, but found the apparently simple circle to be a serious challenge. The Babylonians, Egyptians, and Greeks recognized that the ratio of a circle's circumference or periphery to its diameter was a constant, found to be about 3.14, which we call p (pi). The Pythagorean Greeks hoped to use geometry to relate the areas of the figures of a circle and a square, or "to square a circle" using a compass and straight edge. Johann H. Lambert, the great 18-century logician, was the first to demonstrate the irrationality of p. Beyond the classification of real numbers into rational and irrational numbers, the irrationals can also be classified as either algebraic or transcendental. A number is said to be algebraic if it can be the root of a finite polynomial equation with integer coefficients not all zero. A real number that is not algebraic is called transcendental. In 1882, the German mathematician Ferdinand Lindemann finally proved that p is a transcendental number. This settled the question of squaring the circle, since only algebraic dimensions can be constructed by using a compass and straight edge.

The Pythagoreans developed a method to represent the area of a circle by dividing it up into an infinite number of pie slices, which are essentially infinitely narrow triangles, as high as the circle's radius. This gives the area by applying the simple formula for triangles. However, this converts the problem of the circle into the problem of infinity. Zeno confronted the Pythagoreans by asking if a slice of pie with a curved base can be represented with a flat-edged triangle before it is infinitely thin, and if the triangle is infinitely thin, then how can a real area be described by a collection of "nothing." The Greek search for mathematical rigor faced a daunting paradox.


The circle as the sum of an infinite number of small perfect triangles. The smaller the triangles that are inscribed within a circle, the more nearly they fill it up, shown in the diminishing shaded areas above. Moreover, as these triangles shrink, their height (dotted line) gets closer to the length of the radius...

Different cultures throughout history have associated the square with the tangible world, and the circle with the perfect, ideal or the divine universe. The Pythagoreans and Plato associated the five regular Platonic solids with the four ancient elements of Empedocles, where earth is thought of as the cube, in the sense that one lives within one's own four walls. Similarly, fire is the tetrahedron, and the almost-spherical dodecahedron represents the universe. This is illustrated in the figure below, from Johannes Kepler's Harmonices Mundi, Book II (1619).


The cube, tetrahedron, and dodecahedron regular solids, representing fire, earth, and the universe, from Kepler's Harmonices Mundi

Perhaps because the circle couldn't be squared mathematically, it was intriguing to do it visually. Leonardo DaVinci fit the proportions of the limbs of a human body into a circle and a square. Leonardo was illustrating the "ideal" proportions of human limbs relative to body size.


Leonardo DaVinci's man in a circle and a square

The Scandal of Geometry
« Reply #193 on: May 09, 2009, 06:56:48 AM »
The circle is an idealized object, the fundamental ultimate in perfection. In Euclid's geometry, the circle is the only geometrical area that appears in a fundamental postulate. Euclid constructed his geometry based on 5 postulates. 4 of Euclid's 5 basic postulates seem trivial enough to be considered as axioms. However, the 5th one, the parallel postulate, from the very beginning was considered as insufficiently plausible to qualify as an unproved assumption by mathematicians. For 2000 years, mathematicians unsuccessfully tried to derive it from the other 4 postulates, or to replace it with another more self-evident one. Euclid himself did not quite trust this postulate. He postponed using it in a proof for as long as possible, until his 29th proposition. A modified version of this postulate (equivalent to the original one) is as follows:

For every line l and for every point p that does not lie on l there exists a unique line m through p that is parallel to l.

To make Euclid's geometry rigorous, many larger systems of axioms have been proposed. The one proposed by David Hilbert was not the first, but was the closest in spirit to Euclid's. Today, a system of geometry without a form of the parallel postulate is called the neutral geometry. The discovery of non-Euclidean geometry occurred in the 19th century with the works of János Bolyai and N. I. Lobachevsky. (There is evidence that Gauss also discovered some of the non-Euclidean results, but did not publish them.) One of the most prominent non-Euclidean geometries is Hyperbolic geometry, which comes from the neutral geometry combined with the Hyperbolic Postulate:

For every line l and point p not on l there exist at least 2 distinct lines parallel to l that pass through p.

We can prove, in this geometry, that the sum of the angles of any triangle is strictly less than 180o (p). Interestingly, a direct relationship between hyperbolic geometry and Einstein's special theory of relativity was discovered by the physicist Arnold Sommerfeld in 1909, and elucidated by the geometer Vladimir Varichak in 1912. Since a star's gravity bends light toward itself, a triangle formed by light rays between three stars has this geometry. So, in some ways, this non-Euclidean geometry is a better description of the real interstellar universe than our traditional Euclidean geometry.


Light rays bend between stars, as do lines in hyperbolic geometry.

To explore hyperbolic geometry, Eugenio Beltrami constructed an explicit model in 1866. This model, now known as the Klein model, represents n-dimensional hyperbolic space by an open ball in Euclidean space, and represents hyperbolic lines by Euclidean straight-line segments in the ball.


The Klein model of tiling in hyperbolic space with Euclidean straight lines.

Another model was invented by Poincaré. His geometric model is conformal, which means it preserves angles. The two-dimensional model maps the hyperbolic plane of all space onto a unit-radius size disk. Here, hyperbolic lines are represented by arcs of circles perpendicular to the bounding circle of the unit disk. As everything in this model is inside the unit disk, its circumference represents infinity, and outside the boundary circle there is absolutely nothing. To understand the Poincaré model, consider that you are in the center of such a circular world, and want to walk away toward the boundary circle at infinity. From your local perspective, each step you take is the same size. But from the point of view of an observer outside this plane, the first step is followed by successively smaller steps. Your steps get progressively smaller, to the observer's eye, by the ratio of (1-r2)/2, where r is your distance from the origin in this model.

Let us see what we can do in this circular world that we cannot do in our world of apparently Euclidean geometry. Consider that we want to cover a Euclidean surface with some simple type of regular polygon, without any gaps or overlaps. We see that an equilateral triangle can cover a surface, as can a square, or a regular hexagon. But no other regular polygons can do this. The reason is that if p is the number of sides of a regular polygon (call it a p-gon), and q is the number of p-gons around a vertex, then the interior angle of each p-gon is (p-2)p/p, and around each vertex we have the sum of angles q(p-2)p/p = 2p to make a circle. This reduces to (p-2)(q-2) = 4. Thus, for the 3-gon (triangle) we have q = 6, for the 4-gon q = 4, for the 6-gon q = 3, and no other regular polygon covers a surface by itself. However, this is not the case in the hyperbolic plane. Here, the sum of the angles of a triangle is always less than p. Following the same analysis, this makes (p-2)(q-2) > 4. So we are able to cover a hyperbolic plane by other regular p-gons such as pentagons. Here, we have four regular pentagons fitting exactly around each vertex in this non-Euclidean space.


Tiling of a hyperbolic plane by pentagons with regular angles

The relationships between Euclidean and hyperbolic geometries can be seen by comparing two images that treat a single theme using these geometries. This could be seen in two patterns of fall leaves, shown in the two other figures. It can also be seen by comparing two similar works by M. C. Escher, showing alternating angels and devils. The Euclidean pattern is just a piece of the whole, which could be extended infinitely. In contrast, the non-Euclidean pattern presents the entire world of angels and devils, bounded by a circle.


Fall Leaves, by Jill Ethridge. Another example of Euclidean tessellation is Escher's Angel-Devil Symmetry Drawing E 45, from 1941, on the Euclidean plane


Hyperbolic Fall Leaves, by Douglas Dunham (published with the kind permition of the author). Another example of hyperbolic tessellation is Escher's non-Euclidean Angel-Devil pattern from 1960, Circle Limit IV, that fills the unit circle to infinity, covering the entire hyperbolic plane.

The Kissing Number
« Reply #194 on: May 09, 2009, 07:21:07 AM »
An interesting measure of the size of a circle is the possible number of neighboring circles. One can place circles in a rectangular grid, with identical circles touching above, below, to the left, and to the right of the central circle. However, a tighter arrangement can be made, with hexagonal symmetry. Here, each circle is surrounded by six equivalent ones. This arrangement has the special property that all the neighbors are touching two other circles off the original one. In other words, six circles will exactly surround one, in two dimensions. Items forced on to a flat surface, if short on space, will get six neighbors, and tend to take on the shapes of hexagons themselves, as in a honeycomb.


A circle encircled by six circles shows the kissing number in two dimensions.

Another example of the kissing number in a plane is carbon atoms in graphite, as in pencil "lead". Here, layers are made of carbon atoms forming three bonds in the plane to similar atoms. The atoms form flat hexagonal rings, which are surrounded by identical hexagons.


Carbon atoms in two dimensions form hexagonal sheets, called graphite.

While carbon in the graphite form is essentially a two-dimensional structure, the diamond form of carbon is a covalent network solid, extending equally in three dimensions.


Carbon atoms in diamond extend through three dimensions.

In the last few years, a third fundamental form of the element carbon has been discovered, in which individual atomic bonds are made in two dimensions, but the overall shape obtained is three dimensional. Specifically, a group of 60 carbon atoms will wrap itself into a sphere (changing some hexagons into pentagons). This forms a compound called buckminsterfullerene, or a buckyball. This is named after the inventor of the similarly shaped geodesic dome, Buckminster Fuller.


A buckyball, or buckminsterfullerene, the spherical C60 form of pure carbon atoms, Registry number [99685-96-8], in the Chemical Abstracts Service

The problem of stacking or packing balls efficiently has been an interesting puzzle for four centuries. While people have stacked things for millennia, it was in 1611 that Kepler posed the Sphere-Packing Problem [19]. What kind of stacking of spheres can be proven to be the densest possible?

A first layer of spheres can be arranged in the rectangular or hexagonal patterns of circles in a plane, described above. Such layers can be stacked exactly atop one another, yielding respectively the arrangements called the body-centered (or 3-dimensional) cubic lattice, and the face-centered cubic lattice or cubic close-packed form. However, if flat layers are stacked repeatedly in a staggered way, a third, most dense pattern emerges, called the hexagonal lattice, or hexagonal close-packed


Oranges or atoms in three dimensions will stack in these three arrangements.

All three of these packings are found in nature, as are mixtures of these with less regular forms. Interestingly, elemental metals use all forms, in patterns that do not always correlate with electronic symmetry. For example, potassium, chromium and tungsten prefer the body-centered cubic form, as does iron at room temperature. However, iron at other temperatures takes on the cubic close-packed form, as do copper, silver, and gold. In contrast, the elements in the same period directly below iron (i.e., ruthenium and osmium) prefer the hexagonal close-packed arrangement, as do most of the rare-earth elements, as well as zinc and titanium.

The number of circles that can surround a circle in any given dimension is called the "kissing number" by mathematicians. On a one-dimensional line, this is two (left and right). In a two-dimensional plane, as we discussed, the kissing number is six. The kissing number is 12 in three dimensions, as in the above hexagonal close-packed arrangement (with six in the plane, three more above, and three others below). In theory, a four-dimensional sphere should have a kissing number of 24, in eight dimensions it is 240, and in 24-dimensional space the kissing number is 196,560 circles touching the center circle at once. The kissing number of 6 for a circle means that it is possible to construct a regular hexagon (and consequently a six-pointed star) by using the radius to cut the circle into six equal arcs. Unlike the simplicity of the construction of a six-pointed star, it is a challenge to use only a compass and straight edge to construct a pentagram, a five-pointed star extending from a regular pentagon. To do this task, we need to know how to find the "Golden Mean" of a line segment. The Golden Mean is a cut in a line segment such that the ratio of the larger section to the smaller one is the same as the ratio of the entire line segment to the larger one. It is possible to find the Golden Mean of a given line segment using a compass and straight edge. The Golden Mean has been used extensively in art and architecture from the ancient times of the Egyptians and Greeks up to today. The larger section of the Golden Mean of the radius of any circle divides the circle into ten equal arcs, which enables us to construct the pentagram. The complexity of these procedures, or the harmony and order of the completed form, created the association of mysticism with the combination of a pentagram inscribed in a circle, the chosen symbol of the order of the Pythagoreans, sometimes associated in western tradition with witchcraft


The pentagram of the Pythagoreans

Magic with Circles
« Reply #195 on: May 09, 2009, 07:35:43 AM »
Not all references to the circle are benign. Dante Alighieri, in the Inferno, from his La Divina Commedia, described the circles of Hell. For two centuries, the dark side of the search for knowledge has been associated with Goethe's Faust. In one scene, a witch draws a circle to cast a spell:

Quote
Mephistopheles [to Faust]: My friend, learn well and understand,
This is the way to take a witch in hand.

The Witch: Now, gentlemen, what say you I shall do?

Mephistopheles: A good glass of the well-known juice,
Yet I must beg the oldest sort of you.
A double strength do years produce.

The Witch: With pleasure! Here I have a bottle
From which I sometimes wet my throttle,
Which has no more the slightest stink;
I'll gladly give a little glass to you.

[In a low tone.]

And yet this man, if unprepared he drink,
He can not live an hour, as you know too.

Mephistopheles: He is a friend of mine whom it will profit well;
I would bestow your kitchen's best on him.
So draw your circle, speak your spell,
Give him a cup full to the brim!

[The Witch with curious gestures draws a circle and places marvelous things in it; meanwhile the glasses begin to ring, the cauldron to sound and make music. Lastly, she brings a large book and places the Apes in a circle so as to make them serve as reading-desk and hold the torch. She beckons Faust to come near her.]

Faust [to Mephistopheles]: What is to come of all this? Say!
These frantic gestures and this crazy stuff?
This most insipid, fooling play, I've known and hated it enough.

Mephistopheles: Nonsense! She only wants to joke us;
I beg you, do not be so stern a man!
Physician-like, she has to play some hocus-pocus
So that the juice will do you all the good it can.
[He obliges Faust to step into the circle.]

While European witchcraft has often been associated with circles, the circle is used for good magic in a tale from the Grimm brothers:

Quote
When the miller got home, his wife said, "Tell me, from whence comes this sudden wealth into our house?" He answered, "It comes from a stranger who promised me great treasure. I, in return, have promised him what stands behind the mill; we can very well give him the big apple-tree for it." "Ah, husband," said the terrified wife, "that must have been the devil! He did not mean the apple-tree, but  our daughter, who was standing behind the mill sweeping the yard."

The miller's daughter was a beautiful, pious girl, and lived through the three years in the fear of God and without sin. When therefore the time was over, and the day came when the Evil-one was to fetch her, she washed herself clean, and made a circle round herself with chalk. The devil appeared quite early, but he could not come near to her.

Circling Back to Idealism

Just as did the ancient Greeks, the philosophers of the seventeenth century used the circle as an example of mathematical idealization, to distinguish between an idea and an actual item. Consider that, in 1690, Locke wrote the following:

Quote
Hence the reality of mathematical knowledge.... The mathematician considers the truth and properties belonging to a rectangle or circle only as they are an idea in his own mind. For it is possible he never found either of them existing mathematically, i.e., precisely true, in his life. But yet the knowledge he has of any truths or properties belonging to a circle, or any other mathematical figure, are nevertheless true and certain, even of real things existing: because real things are no further concerned, nor intended to be meant by any such propositions, than as things really agree to those archetypes in his mind.

Although the mathematically pure circle doesn’t exist in the tangible world, it is present in aspects of many parts of life, as Walt Whitman wrote in Leaves of Grass:

Quote


Facing west from California's shores,
Inquiring, tireless, seeking what is yet unfound,
I, a child, very old, over waves, towards the house of maternity,
the land of migrations, look afar,
Look off the shores of my Western sea, the circle almost circled;
For starting westward from Hindustan, from the vales of Kashmere,
From Asia, from the north, from the God, the sage, and the hero,
From the south, from the flowery peninsulas and the spice islands,
Long having wander'd since, round the earth having wander'd,
Now I face home again, very pleas'd and joyous,
(But where is what I started for so long ago?
And why is it yet unfound?)

To us, the poet here is seeing circles in many aspects of life. He is connecting the end and the beginning of his own travels, of his lifetime, of geographical longitudes, and of the spread of human migration and cultural diversity. He is commenting on his own aspirations and those of all people. The goals and activities of life do not always go forward in a straight line, but can circle one back to the start. Whitman’s poem interweaves many of the ideas we see connected to circles. The philosophy of living in harmony with circular patterns was expressed more recently by Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa, 1863-1950), a holy man of the Oglala Sioux Native Americans.

Quote
Everything an Indian does is in a circle, and that is because the power of the world always works in circles, and everything tries to be round. In the old days when we were a strong and happy people, all our power came to us from the sacred hoop of the nation, and so long as the hoop was unbroken the people flourished....Everything the Power of the World does is done in a circle....

Even the seasons form a great circle in their changing, and always come back again to where they were. The life of a man is a circle from childhood to childhood and so it is in everything where power moves. Our teepees were round like the nests of birds, and these were always set in a circle, the nation’s hoop, a nest of many nests, where the Great Spirit meant for us to hatch our children.

The circle has been used throughout history, and is still incorporated into new works, such as this feathered snake eating itself


A dragon/feathered-snake eating itself, as a mixture of the old cultures of China, Ireland, and Mexico, by Jorge Carrera Bolańos

The circle remains an intimate part of human culture, from math and science to art and human views of the world. Edwin Markham (1852-1940) expressed this in his best-loved poem:

Quote

He drew a circle that shut me out:
Heretic, rebel, a thing to flout.
But Love and I had the wit to win:
We drew a circle that took him in.

Re: The Da Vinci crock
« Reply #196 on: May 13, 2009, 08:26:09 AM »
test


Real Madrid President-In-Waiting Florentino Perez Seals Kaka Agreement With AC Milan – Report

From the cover of Spanish sports daily 'Marca' comes a report that could shake both AC Milan and Real Madrid to their foundations...

Real Madrid president-in-waiting Florentino Perez has already sealed an agreement with AC Milan to allow star midfielder Kaka to join up with the Blancos next season, according to Marca. The Madrid-based sports daily claims that Perez, who is set to win the upcoming presidential elections at the Santiago Bernabeu, agreed with Milan vice-president Adriano Galliani to sign the Brazilian during a meeting on March 16. The fee involved will be a colossal €60 million, payable over the next four years - the flagship expenditure of Perez's election campaign, which will begin in earnest in three weeks. Missing from the accord is Kaka himself, whose own economic matters have apparently yet to be settled. However, according to Marca, these will be a mere formality as the Milan agreement was the sticking point.

So confident is the newspaper of this transfer's fruition that the front page currently displays Zinedine Zidane - a well-known Perez ally - handing his old No. 5 shirt to a smiling Kaka. This mock-up photo is to illustrate the fact that the past Ballon d'Or winner is to seek his second World Player of the Year victory wearing the same number that saw the outgoing Fabio Cannavaro lift the award in 2006. Despite the jubilation in Spain, though, it appears as though this transfer saga is far from complete. Adriano Galliani has moved to scotch the rumours, telling La Gazzetta dello Sport this morning, "Florentino Perez and I have set up the G14 and our rapport goes beyond football. That's why I don't want to stir up any controversies and I am very calm. Perez has yet to be re-elected as president at Real and can’t make any commitments." "However, I am sure that if he really wanted to buy Kaka one day, he would come directly to me, without beating around the bush. "Therefore, I am calm: Kaka is not for sale and Florentino will make his peace with it."

Ewan Macdonald & Vince Masiello, Goal.com


I guess they're just rumours - they're so old you just can't believe them. Take a look here, for instance:

http://news.softpedia.com/news/Real-Madrid-Are-Close-on-Signing-Kaka-25113.shtml

http://edition.cnn.com/2009/SPORT/football/04/09/milan.kaka/


Is this an American or European website? I mean, way too many posts on soccer here..

Re: The Da Vinci crock
« Reply #198 on: May 26, 2009, 08:02:38 AM »

Real Madrid President-In-Waiting Florentino Perez Seals Kaka Agreement With AC Milan – Report

From the cover of Spanish sports daily 'Marca' comes a report that could shake both AC Milan and Real Madrid to their foundations...

Real Madrid president-in-waiting Florentino Perez has already sealed an agreement with AC Milan to allow star midfielder Kaka to join up with the Blancos next season, according to Marca. The Madrid-based sports daily claims that Perez, who is set to win the upcoming presidential elections at the Santiago Bernabeu, agreed with Milan vice-president Adriano Galliani to sign the Brazilian during a meeting on March 16. The fee involved will be a colossal €60 million, payable over the next four years - the flagship expenditure of Perez's election campaign, which will begin in earnest in three weeks. Missing from the accord is Kaka himself, whose own economic matters have apparently yet to be settled. However, according to Marca, these will be a mere formality as the Milan agreement was the sticking point.

So confident is the newspaper of this transfer's fruition that the front page currently displays Zinedine Zidane - a well-known Perez ally - handing his old No. 5 shirt to a smiling Kaka. This mock-up photo is to illustrate the fact that the past Ballon d'Or winner is to seek his second World Player of the Year victory wearing the same number that saw the outgoing Fabio Cannavaro lift the award in 2006. Despite the jubilation in Spain, though, it appears as though this transfer saga is far from complete. Adriano Galliani has moved to scotch the rumours, telling La Gazzetta dello Sport this morning, "Florentino Perez and I have set up the G14 and our rapport goes beyond football. That's why I don't want to stir up any controversies and I am very calm. Perez has yet to be re-elected as president at Real and can’t make any commitments." "However, I am sure that if he really wanted to buy Kaka one day, he would come directly to me, without beating around the bush. "Therefore, I am calm: Kaka is not for sale and Florentino will make his peace with it."

Ewan Macdonald & Vince Masiello, Goal.com


I guess they're just rumours - they're so old you just can't believe them. Take a look here, for instance:

http://news.softpedia.com/news/Real-Madrid-Are-Close-on-Signing-Kaka-25113.shtml

http://edition.cnn.com/2009/SPORT/football/04/09/milan.kaka/


Is this an American or European website? I mean, way too many posts on soccer here..

Actually threads like this should be entirely removed by the moderators.

Gide's "Corydon"
« Reply #199 on: May 29, 2009, 07:29:18 AM »

[...]

Most of the top ranking SS from the very beginning were also homosexual. Ernst Roehm, whom Hitler was a protégé, created the Nazi party on the idea of being proud so called ultra-masculine, male supremacist pedophiles. When you cast a net with that kind of bait what kind of fish do you think you are going to catch? In fact, they actually thought because of their homosexuality they were ultra-masculine because they didn't need women for anything, including sex and companionship. The idea was that because they had no personal need for women, homosexual men were superior to even heterosexual men. They believed that homosexual men were the foundation of all nation-states and represented the elite strata of human society. Naturally, to support their argument they drew much of their pride from the accomplishments of the Greeks, quite possibly the gayest civilization ever to walk to earth.

Heinrich Himmler even complained "Does it not constitute a danger to the Nazi movement if it can be said that Nazi leaders are chosen for sexual reasons?" Apparently Himmler was not complaining so much about all the rampant faggotry around him but just being a homosexual seemed to be the only qualifying factor as to who got promoted in the SS. You might ask, as I did, "Where the @ # ! * did all of these homosexuals come from?" I think that is a fair question. What I found out was that in the 1920s and 30s, homosexuality was known as "the German vice" across Europe because they had so many of them. Here is a fact you can run home and tell your friends -- Germany was actually the birthplace of the gay rights movement. No lie. But back to the Nazi. Ernst Roehm, as the head of 2,500,000 Storm Troops reportedly had units of several hundred thousand Storm Troopers, where almost all the men, without exception, were homosexuals. In fact, the favorite meeting place where some of the earliest formative meetings of the Nazi Party had been held was a "gay" bar in Munich called the Bratwurstglockl where Ernst Roehm kept a table reserved for himself. At the Bratwurstglockl, Roehm and associates - Edmund Heines, Karl Ernst, Ernst's partner Captain Rohrbein, Captain Petersdorf, Count Ernst Helldorf and the rest - would meet to plan and strategize. These were the men who orchestrated the Nazi campaign of intimidation and terror. All of them were homosexuals.

[...]


Just like Gide - and Corydon. They are not positioned as victims, they are proud of their orientation and are rather persuaded of their superiority.

Gide was the proponent of an elitist, aristocratic, intellectual homosexuality. His model was Platonic, his references, Greek. To explain the origins of homosexuality, Corydon plunges into natural history first, as medical works do. Then he attacks the notion that homosexuality is a vice "against nature." Heterosexuality, he suggests, is a matter of "habit" and not of nature, for everything in our society and our education heads us in that direction. If homosexuals persist in their inclinations in spite of all other inducements otherwise, it is because their passion is dictated by nature.

Gide contrasts the "natural" and superior beauty of man to the artificial and "false" allure of woman. He draws parallels between beauty and art, and associates the exaltation of male beauty with historical periods of glory and ostentation, and celebration of "Venusian" qualities with the centuries of decline and decay.

The male having far more resources than can be directed to the reproductive function, he seeks alternative outlets for his desire. In a monogamist society, prostitution or adultery are the only other options. Corydon proposes a historical, healthy and noble solution, that of the ancient Greece, evoking the last brilliance of Sparta and the Sacred Band of the Thebes. Lacedaemon is not just a random example: the city embodied the warlike spirit, courage and virile force, the characteristics most diametrically opposed to those popularly ascribed to homosexuals.