[...] For example, the submissive partner in a folie a deux may quickly lose their delusional beliefs when separated from the dominant partner. [...]
[...] 'Members do it with projective identification.' Members of families, couples, groups, institutions, tribes, cultures and so on. Work with survivors of catastrophes shows that the trauma acts like a homing device and ransacks or searches out the history of the victim until it finds a congruent, early experience. It latches onto that -- tightly -- and can only be dislodged with the greatest difficulty. Another image is of hungry birds in a nest -- heads vertical, beaks open, cheeping. You may think that they are only craving, but they are also projecting like mad, and what mother thrusts down their throats on her return goes deep. What is true of worms served up as food for birds is also true of people with respect to prejudices and other deeply held beliefs. They become so deeply implanted or sedimented that they are 'second nature'. From the beginning the infant forms some object relationships, predominantly in phantasy. In her view, the outward deflection of the death instinct postulated by Freud creates the fantasy of a deathly bad object... First we project our destructiveness into others; then we wish to annihilate them without guilt because they contain all the evil and destructiveness'. When we read accounts of the genocide of the Conquistadors, the Stalinists, the Germans, the Kampucheans, the Americans or the Iraqis, we must ask what has been projected into these people from the most primitive parts of their tormentors. [...][...] Where positive aspects of the self are forcefully projected similar degrees of depersonalization occur, with feelings of personal worthlessness and with dependent worship of the other's contrasting strengths, powers, uncanny sensitivity, marvellous gifts, thoughts, knowledge, undying goodness etc. This is the world of the devotee, cults and hero-promotion. It is also a world in which people will do anything a Bagwan or a Rev. James Jones tells them to do -- from sexual licence to mass suicide. The same suspension of one's own sense of right and wrong is at work in the followers L. Ron Hubbard in the Church of Scientiology as in the helter-skelter minds of the devotees of Charles Manson, killing rich Californians, and in the convictions of bombers and perpetrators of sectarian murders in Northern Ireland or terrorists from Lybia, though the ideologies of the respective group leaders may have utterly different apparent of real justifications.
Several cases of Shared Psychotic Disorder or Induced Delusional Disorder (folie à deux) have been reported in the literature. Folie à deux has been described as an intriguing condition of great relevance to the understanding of human psychopathology. It is the most impressive example of a pathological relationship. Forensic complications of fatality, admissions into a secure hospital, and suicide pacts related to the condition have been reported. About 8% of a series of cases of Induced Delusional Disorder occur among non-consanguineous patients or friends. Certain conditions are needed for Shared Delusional Disorder to occur during incarceration or in a forensic hospital. The environment of intimate relationships over the years and isolation are fertile grounds for the development of Induced Delusional Disorder. For incarcerated populations and especially those with long sentences, living together for long periods fosters intimacy. Solitary confinement also produces isolation, which is a breeding ground for delusional ideas and paranoid disorders. The interaction between patients with various diagnostic characteristics of dominance and submissiveness could fuel the development of these disorders. These conditions are conducive to paranoia because of the various disordered personality types in the residents of forensic treatment centers. Hypothetically, induction could happen when a patient with suspicious and self-important cluster B personality characteristics befriends a timid, dependent, and suggestible patient with cluster C personality symptoms. The absence of several cases in these settings (prison and forensic hospitals) may be the result of underreporting or the lack of recognition of rare psychiatric syndromes in the penal system. Such cases are intriguing in the sense that the delusions are not bizarre, were shared strongly, and influenced the patients' functioning. These features are characteristic of Shared Delusional Disorder in 3 patients. Their delusions are held despite incontrovertible proof to the contrary. Although the 3 were non-white, they were only significantly different from the remainder of the patients in their belief in the delusions. The center catered to the mental health needs of over 200 patients, 70% to 80% of whom were non-white. The two induced patients had never expressed those beliefs prior to the inducer's admission to the center. The inducer was the last of the three to be admitted to the center. He was also the oldest, commanding the respect and seniority needed to produce a domineering tendency. He was also looked on as a respected older person by the two induced patients. The first induced patient was vulnerable to desiring early release because of his long sentence. His previous schizophrenic delusions were extended in the form of folie induite (induced psychosis). The third patient, the second one induced, manifested a strong desire to feel important and had recently thought of himself as having a high "social status." The loss of status may have led him to identify with the promises of the delusions. His represented a case described as folie imposée (imposed psychosis). Separation from the inducer led to a loss of delusional beliefs in his case. Furthermore, he was reported to be a slow learner and was thought to have mental retardation. His psychological assessment placed him at the lower end of the normal intelligence range. It is therefore still possible that diminished intelligence, known as a significant etiological factor in developing Shared Delusional Disorder, may have played a part in his case. This case extends the debate regarding the gene-environment interaction in the development of delusional disorders. Separation, a simple environmental manipulation with therapeutic effects, weakens the genetic argument. This notion is not conclusive, as there are cases of resistance after separation. However, the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the first induced patient and drug-induced delirium with low-normal intelligence in the second induced patient strengthens the idea of genetic and organic pathogeneses of the disorder. Organic brain syndromes and substances like methylphenidate and cannabis have been factors strongly associated with Induced Delusional Disorder. This connection is especially applicable in the case of the second induced patient. The use of psychotropic medication, cognitive verbal challenge, empirical provision of alternative explanations to erroneous beliefs, and the environmental manipulation of the patients resulted in moderate improvements, thus confirming the pathoplastic nature of the origins of the disorder.
University of Washington School of Law says that at least 1 out of every 5 of their law students seeks counseling during the course of law school. (if 1/5 law students actually seek counseling, the numbers of students who could actually benefit from counseling is substantially higher.) If the student has insurance plan, she may receive 15 out-patient mental health visits per policy year. In addition to outside resources, the Law School has a mental health professional on call; services are free of charge to law students. For both financial and workload reasons, the doctor accepts clients on a referral basis. Sometimes, however, people who could benefit from counseling do not feel as though counseling is necessary. If you have had two or more of the following symptoms for longer than a few days, please seek evaluation and treatment as soon as possible.The Dysphoric Array:- Mixture of anxiety, depression, and hostility - Thoughts of killing self - Feeling so unhappy that you can not shake it - Dissatisfied or bored with most aspects of life - Nicotine use (the most efficient anti-dysphoric on the legal market - significant cancer risk attached) - Disrupted sleep - never feeling sufficiently rested - Increased social isolation - Limiting normal exercise patterns The Alcohol/Drug Dependent Array:- Managing sleep patterns through using substance - Feeling guilty about your use of alcohol or drugs - Drinking or using drugs creates problems between you and your partner, parent, or relatives - Neglecting your obligations for longer than a day because of negative consequences related to use - No memory of time period during use - Increased social isolation - Limiting normal exercise patterns
Delusions of reference are the ones that are more "fun" -- they generally include experiences such as:feeling that people on television or radio are talking about, or talking directly to thembelieving that headlines or stories in newspapers are written especially for themhaving the experience that people (often strangers) drop hints or say things about them behind their backbelieving that events (even world events) have been deliberately contrived for them, or have special personal significanceseeing objects or events as being deliberately set up to convey a special or particular meaning
Depression is a broad term used to refer to a range of different diseases recognized by the medical field. We also use the term to refer to temporary and minor negative feelings (i.e. I'm depressed because the Pacers lost last night or the post-holiday blues.) Depressive illnesses include major depression, the bipolar disorders, dysthymia, cyclothymia, and variations of these based on timing of the onset (i.e. seasonal or post partum), duration of symptoms, or severity of symptoms. These illnesses impact over 19 million adults in America each year. Depression is frequently seen as a complicating factor in heart attack, stroke, diabetes and cancer patients. In fact, depression increases one's risk of having a heart attack. Almost anyone who kills him or herself suffers from a mental disorder, most often a form of depression or substance abuse or both.The key factor in diagnosing most of these illnesses is the presence of a major depressive episode. To be diagnosed with a major depressive episode your symptoms must last at least 2 weeks. The symptoms must also appear to be a change from previous functioning. There are people who resemble Winnie the Pooh's Eyre their whole life but are not depressed. The symptoms of a major depressive disorder include:Depressed mood.Diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.Significant weight loss or gain without effort or loss of appetite.Difficulty sleeping or sleeping too much.Psychomotor agitation or retardation.Fatigue.Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt.Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness.Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or a suicide attempt or plan.
Quote from: To Those Who Think on February 16, 2008, 04:00:01 PMDelusions of reference are the ones that are more "fun" -- they generally include experiences such as:feeling that people on television or radio are talking about, or talking directly to thembelieving that headlines or stories in newspapers are written especially for themhaving the experience that people (often strangers) drop hints or say things about them behind their backbelieving that events (even world events) have been deliberately contrived for them, or have special personal significanceseeing objects or events as being deliberately set up to convey a special or particular meaningYou think the narcissist's ideas of reference are less "fun"? The narcissist is the centre of the world. He is not merely the centre of HIS world -- as far as he can tell, he is the centre of THE world. This Archimedean delusion is one of the narcissist's most predominant and all-pervasive cognitive distortions. The narcissist feels certain that he is the source of all events around him, the origin of all the emotions of his nearest or dearest, the fount of all knowledge, both the first and the final cause, the beginning as well as the end.This is understandable.The narcissist derives his sense of being, his experience of his own existence, and his self-worth from the outside. He mines others for Narcissistic Supply -- adulation, attention, reflection, fear. Their reactions stoke his furnace. Absent Narcissistic Supply -- the narcissist disintegrates and self-annihilates. When unnoticed, he feels empty and worthless. The narcissist MUST delude himself into believing that he is persistently the focus and object of the attentions, intentions, plans, feelings, and stratagems of other people. The narcissist faces a stark choice - either be (or become) the permanent centre of the world, or cease to be altogether. This constant obsession with one's locus, with one's centrality, with one's position as a hub -- leads to referential ideation ("ideas of reference"). This is the conviction that one is at the receiving end of other people's behaviours, speech, and even thoughts. The person suffering from delusional ideas of reference is at the centre and focus of the constant (and confabulated) attentions of an imaginary audience.When people talk -- the narcissist is convinced that he is the topic of discussion. When they quarrel -- he is most probably the cause. When they smirk -- he is the victim of their ridicule. If they are unhappy -- he made them so. If they are happy -- they are egotists for ignoring him. He is convinced that his behaviour is continuously monitored, criticized, compared, dissected, approved of, or imitated by others. He deems himself so indispensable and important, such a critical component of other people's lives, that his every act, his every word, his every omission -- is bound to upset, hurt, uplift, or satisfy his audience. And, to the narcissist, everyone is but an audience. It all emanates from him -- and it all reverts to him. The narcissist's is a circular and closed universe. His ideas of reference are a natural extension of his primitive defence mechanisms (omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence). Being omnipresent explains why everyone, everywhere is concerned with him. Being omnipotent and omniscient excludes other, lesser, beings from enjoying the admiration, adulation, and attention of people.Yet, the attrition afforded by years of tormenting ideas of reference inevitably yields paranoiac thinking. To preserve his egocentric cosmology, the narcissist is compelled to attribute fitting motives and psychological dynamics to others. Such motives and dynamics have little to do with reality. They are PROJECTED by the narcissist UNTO others so as to maintain his personal mythology. In other words, the narcissist attributes to others HIS OWN motives and psychodynamics. And since narcissists are mostly besieged by transformations of aggression (rage, hatred, envy, fear) -- these they often attribute to others as well. Thus, the narcissist tends to interpret other people's behaviour as motivated by anger, fear, hatred, or envy and as directed at him or revolving around him. The narcissist (often erroneously) believes that people discuss him, gossip about him, hate him, defame him, mock him, berate him, underestimate him, envy him, or fear him. He is (often rightly) convinced that he is, to others, the source of hurt, humiliation, impropriety, and indignation. The narcissist "knows" that he is a wonderful, powerful, talented, and entertaining person -- but this only explains why people are jealous and why they seek to undermine and destroy him. Thus, since the narcissist is unable to secure the long term POSITIVE love, admiration, or even attention of his Sources of Supply -- he resorts to a mirror strategy. In other words, the narcissist becomes paranoid. Better to be the object of (often imaginary and always self inflicted) derision, scorn, and bile -- than to be ignored. Being envied is preferable to being treated with indifference. If he cannot be loved -- the narcissist would rather be feared or hated than forgotten.