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Author Topic: Legal Reasoning  (Read 171129 times)

vicsecret

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Re: Legal Reasoning
« Reply #170 on: November 19, 2006, 12:07:14 AM »

In 1921, upon publishing "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego," Freud was among the first to study the powerful influence that group leaders can have over group members. In his paper, Freud referred to the contagious and regressive nature of groups described by LeBon and McDougall, but he added the dimension of intrapsychic cathectic shifts that could occur in groups. Freud described the similarity of such groups as the Catholic Church and the army with the hypnotic situation. In all of these situations, there is a leader and one or more followers. The follower obeys the leader and gives up his own superego and ego ideal as he identifies with the leader's superego. Freud also compared the psychological changes occurring in group members to changes that occur to those who fall in love. In both cases, the ego can disregard the previous standards of the superego, because it gains a sufficient amount of narcissistic support and gratification of instinctual wishes elsewhere.


If the individuals in a group are combined into a unity, there must be something to unite them, and this bond might be precisely the thing that is characteristic of a group. Le Bon thinks that the particular acquirements of individuals become obliterated in a group, and that in this way their distinctiveness vanishes. The racial unconscious emerges; what is heterogenous is submerged in what is homogeneous. The mental superstructure, the development of which in individuals shows such dissimilarities, is removed, and the unconscious foundations, which are similar in everyone, stand exposed to view. In a group, the individual is brought under conditions which allow him to throw off the repressions of his unconscious instinctual impulses. The apparently new characteristics which he then displays are in fact the manifestations of this unconscious. Le Bon believes that the individuals in a group display new characteristics which they have not previously possessed. Three factors are put forth as reasons for this: 1) the individual forming part of a group acquires a sentiment of invincible power which allows him to yield to instincts which, had he been alone, he would perforce have kept under restraint; 2) contagion; and 3) suggestibility. A group is impulsive, changeable, and irritable. It is led almost exclusively by the unconscious. A group is credulous and open to influence, it has no critical faculty, and the improbable does not exist for it. A group is subject to the magical power of words. Groups have never thirsted after truth.

Shielded by the anonymity of a crowd, people abandon personal responsibility and surrender to the contagious emotions of the crowd. A crowd thus assumes a life of its own, stirring up emotions and driving people toward irrational, perhaps violent, action. However, it must be noted that if Le Bon often referred to the cliché of the irrational crowd, which was current in the 19th century and before (in particular in the fields of criminology, which tended to describe crowds as irrational and criminal groups), he considered himself the founder of "crowd psychology". Thus, he didn't consider crowds as totally irrational, but simply thought that ordinary individualist psychology wasn't relevant to this phenomenon. Le Bon was a pioneer in propaganda, which he considered a suitable and rational technique for managing groups, using for example communal reinforcement of beliefs, etc. Le Bon's 1895 "The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind" influenced many 20th century figures, including Adolf Hitler, whose "Mein Kampf" insisted on Le Bon's work.

Le Bon made abundant use of the concept of "collective soul". Sigmund Freud would criticize this notion of collective unconscious, asserting that crowds do not have a soul of their own, nor do specific ethnic groups have a Volkgeist. Rather, individuals identify themselves to their leaders through their own "ideal ego" (that is, their subjective representation of their leader). The Freudian concept of an "ideal ego" later became the super-ego. Ultimately, leaders themselves identify themselves to an idea.

bangbang

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Re: Legal Reasoning
« Reply #171 on: November 23, 2006, 09:52:59 PM »

Sigmund Freud would criticize this notion of collective unconscious, asserting that crowds do not have a soul of their own, nor do specific ethnic groups have a Volkgeist. Rather, individuals identify themselves to their leaders through their own "ideal ego" (that is, their subjective representation of their leader). The Freudian concept of an "ideal ego" later became the super-ego. Ultimately, leaders themselves identify themselves to an idea.


That's because Freud tends to think in purely psychological terms.

twoways

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Re: Legal Reasoning
« Reply #172 on: December 07, 2006, 04:22:01 AM »

In 1921, upon publishing "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego," Freud was among the first to study the powerful influence that group leaders can have over group members. In his paper, Freud referred to the contagious and regressive nature of groups described by LeBon and McDougall, but he added the dimension of intrapsychic cathectic shifts that could occur in groups. Freud described the similarity of such groups as the Catholic Church and the army with the hypnotic situation. In all of these situations, there is a leader and one or more followers. The follower obeys the leader and gives up his own superego and ego ideal as he identifies with the leader's superego. Freud also compared the psychological changes occurring in group members to changes that occur to those who fall in love. In both cases, the ego can disregard the previous standards of the superego, because it gains a sufficient amount of narcissistic support and gratification of instinctual wishes elsewhere.

After the Korean War, under assignment by the U.S. Army, Lifton Singer, West, and others studied the effects of mind control techniques on the returning POWs. They described how these soldiers had been influenced to accept communist ideology while captive. They explained how these techniques of coercive persuasion went beyond normal group influences described by Freud through the use of deliberate manipulation processes that increased guilt, shame, and anxiety in the POW's. These mental health professionals were the first to describe the fact that some of the same mind control dynamic are used in modern day cults. Today there is a recognized body of literature by mental health professionals about mind control techniques used in cults. Of course, in addition to examining the coercive techniques, the clinician must examine the vulnerability of the cult recruit. Individuals become vulnerable to cults at times of stress, particularly during periods of transition (e.g., when dealing with loss of a relationship or employment).

The large majority of people who join cults do so in late adolescence or early adulthood. With puberty, there is an increase in the sexual and aggressive drives. Along with this, there is a revival of oedipal feelings and, therefore, there is a need for distancing from the oedipal objects of childhood. Parents are de-idealized and healthy young adults attempt to develop a vision of the world that is different from their parent's view. Also, during this time, there often is physical distance from the family. This distance and the concomitant feelings of separateness is engenders may trigger pre-oedipal anxiety and/or depression. Additionally, there are specific personality dynamics of late adolescence which were first described by Anna Freud -- intellectualization, asceticism and idealism -- which make adolescents vulnerable to cults. Furthermore, the adolescent superego is highly susceptible to environmental influences as a result of parental de-identification. Therefore, this is a time of life that the group or group leader can have a powerful influence.


There are 1.3 million lawyers. A population and economy of our size needs about 500,000 fewer. The overgrowth of the profession is toxic to the nation. It also generates low wages, total disrespect, and public animus for the pestilence lawyers bring. America does not need you, lawyer 1.3 million and one. Why don't law students leave law school and try something productive instead?!

The faculty of all law schools are beyond the pale, with no known exception. Its brightest members, geniuses, have been made into oblivious dumbasses and mental cripples by cult indoctrination. If you find law school unpleasant, you are correct. It is a painful, harsh cult indoctrination process. They are trying to break your connection to the outside world, to the outside express purposes of the law, you thought you were going to learn to serve. They want to crush you with humiliation, 80 hrs/week of pointless work, incomprehensible gibberish, worthless garbage from 1250 AD, pointless competition, and shunning of the dissident. They have a Lincolnesque officer of the court ethos to point to when you object to their methods. It is all a lie. The faculty are harsh cult enforcers.

All goals of all subjects of the law are in utter failure. The sole success of the law is to generate wealth for the lawyer. The biggest victims of the law are minorities. Beyond the process of stress indoctrination, is the criminal cult enterprise content. On every page of every Hornbook, you will find, the supernatural, mind reading, future forecasting, a belief that 12 strangers can detect truth or lies by using their gut feelings, and the best of all, the word, "reasonable." That means in accordance with the New Testament, in violation of the Establishment Clause. Today, it has drifted to mean any feeling the little caesar on the bench decides to impose on the public, using Army Airborne if needed. These tyrants are in out of control insurrection against Article I Section 1 of the Constitution.

The legal profession is a waking nightmare for the nation. Everyone will grow to hate lawyers as they set about to destroy America. The legal profession will be openly bashed and derided to lawyers faces, at social occasions. No one will feel it necessary to show them manners, as if they were convicted felons. They will hate themselves, for good reason.

robmelone

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Re: Legal Reasoning
« Reply #173 on: December 08, 2006, 07:06:09 PM »

robmelone

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Re: Legal Reasoning
« Reply #174 on: December 09, 2006, 02:41:13 PM »

eppur

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Re: Legal Reasoning
« Reply #175 on: December 12, 2006, 05:54:38 AM »
There are 1.3 million lawyers. A population and economy of our size needs about 500,000 fewer. The overgrowth of the profession is toxic to the nation. It also generates low wages, total disrespect, and public animus for the pestilence lawyers bring. America does not need you, lawyer 1.3 million and one. Why don't law students leave law school and try something productive instead?!

The faculty of all law schools are beyond the pale, with no known exception. Its brightest members, geniuses, have been made into oblivious dumbasses and mental cripples by cult indoctrination. If you find law school unpleasant, you are correct. It is a painful, harsh cult indoctrination process. They are trying to break your connection to the outside world, to the outside express purposes of the law, you thought you were going to learn to serve. They want to crush you with humiliation, 80 hrs/week of pointless work, incomprehensible gibberish, worthless garbage from 1250 AD, pointless competition, and shunning of the dissident. They have a Lincolnesque officer of the court ethos to point to when you object to their methods. It is all a lie. The faculty are harsh cult enforcers.

All goals of all subjects of the law are in utter failure. The sole success of the law is to generate wealth for the lawyer. The biggest victims of the law are minorities. Beyond the process of stress indoctrination, is the criminal cult enterprise content. On every page of every Hornbook, you will find, the supernatural, mind reading, future forecasting, a belief that 12 strangers can detect truth or lies by using their gut feelings, and the best of all, the word, "reasonable." That means in accordance with the New Testament, in violation of the Establishment Clause. Today, it has drifted to mean any feeling the little caesar on the bench decides to impose on the public, using Army Airborne if needed. These tyrants are in out of control insurrection against Article I Section 1 of the Constitution.

The legal profession is a waking nightmare for the nation. Everyone will grow to hate lawyers as they set about to destroy America. The legal profession will be openly bashed and derided to lawyers faces, at social occasions. No one will feel it necessary to show them manners, as if they were convicted felons. They will hate themselves, for good reason.

review

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SIF
« Reply #176 on: December 13, 2006, 02:07:43 AM »

Here are some more:














The Special Infiltration Force is established for infiltrating into all kinds of prisons, native and oversea, in order to collect information on the actual situation behind walls. Sometimes a SIF has to infiltrate as an agent into a private prison, a Juvenile Correctional Facility within the USA or an obscure prison overseas. In many cases this is initiated in cooperation between Amnesty International, other charity institutions, the UN, or a government of a particular individual country. In all cases the aim is to verify information  and to report on abuse of power, harrasment of prisoners and to check on the general conditions behind hermetic walls.

They are well paid, always after completion of their mission. Each SIF has to sign a contract that he is aware of the importance of the organization policy. To be able to keep this Force secret a SIF may not ever speak about the existence of the SIF Project or reveal he is a SIF, let alone betray his identity while on a mission. As you can imagine a  SIF is expected to endure hardships. Only a few tough men who have mostly already been trained as a marine, a navy seal, another Special Force and in matial arts come in the picture for this. Rumors have it these men are also secretly genetically and biochemically modified.
 
The training program of a SIF includes:

- How to secretely test the regime
- How to provoke any special punishments
- How to deal with indoor aggression both from other prisoner and from guards
- How to survive extreme circumstances, aggression and abuse, physical, emotional and sexual.

Mission Guidelines:

1. The SIF project and any mission by SIF's always are and always stay top secret.
2. This means that you are not allowed to reveal you are  on an  inspection mission EVER.
4. The USA, Amnesty International or any contract party will never recognize the existence of a SIF mission, let alone an individual SIF.

If you violate these rules you will loose your status as an agent and any further connection to the SIF Organization will be impossible. To avoid any suspicion a SIF will only get inside the subjected facility by regular procedure. The organization assist him to commit a felony, mostly the possession of hard drugs, for which he will be arrested, convicted and jailed for a period from a few months to a year. Of course from the moment a mission has started  there will be no contact between the organizaion and the SIF. For example a SIF may be arrested for cocaine possession. Regular procedures take place and the SIF has to serve jail time, without the officials knowing he is a SIF. The Special Infiltration Project is always recruiting men (from age 16, as the latter are also able to infiltrate within a juvenile correctional facility)

dean

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Re: Legal Reasoning
« Reply #177 on: December 13, 2006, 02:19:13 AM »
So is SIF recruiting law students?

deming

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Re: Legal Reasoning
« Reply #178 on: December 21, 2006, 08:57:29 PM »

There are 1.3 million lawyers. A population and economy of our size needs about 500,000 fewer. The overgrowth of the profession is toxic to the nation. It also generates low wages, total disrespect, and public animus for the pestilence lawyers bring. America does not need you, lawyer 1.3 million and one. Why don't law students leave law school and try something productive instead?!

The faculty of all law schools are beyond the pale, with no known exception. Its brightest members, geniuses, have been made into oblivious dumbasses and mental cripples by cult indoctrination. If you find law school unpleasant, you are correct. It is a painful, harsh cult indoctrination process. They are trying to break your connection to the outside world, to the outside express purposes of the law, you thought you were going to learn to serve. They want to crush you with humiliation, 80 hrs/week of pointless work, incomprehensible gibberish, worthless garbage from 1250 AD, pointless competition, and shunning of the dissident. They have a Lincolnesque officer of the court ethos to point to when you object to their methods. It is all a lie. The faculty are harsh cult enforcers.

All goals of all subjects of the law are in utter failure. The sole success of the law is to generate wealth for the lawyer. The biggest victims of the law are minorities. Beyond the process of stress indoctrination, is the criminal cult enterprise content. On every page of every Hornbook, you will find, the supernatural, mind reading, future forecasting, a belief that 12 strangers can detect truth or lies by using their gut feelings, and the best of all, the word, "reasonable." That means in accordance with the New Testament, in violation of the Establishment Clause. Today, it has drifted to mean any feeling the little caesar on the bench decides to impose on the public, using Army Airborne if needed. These tyrants are in out of control insurrection against Article I Section 1 of the Constitution.

The legal profession is a waking nightmare for the nation. Everyone will grow to hate lawyers as they set about to destroy America. The legal profession will be openly bashed and derided to lawyers faces, at social occasions. No one will feel it necessary to show them manners, as if they were convicted felons. They will hate themselves, for good reason.


Very interesting!

hiller

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Logical Reasoning
« Reply #179 on: February 20, 2007, 08:29:00 AM »
The three methods for logical reasoning, deduction, induction and abduction can be explained in the following way:

Given preconditions α, postconditions β and the rule R1: α ∴ β (α therefore β).

Deduction means determining β. It is using the rule and its preconditions to make a conclusion (α ∧ R1 ⇒ β).

Induction means determining R1. It is learning R1 after numerous examples of β and α.

Abduction means determining α. It is using the postcondition and the rule to assume that the precondition could explain the postcondition (β ∧ R1 ⇒ α).

- Deduction allows deriving b as a consequence of a. In other words, deduction is the process of deriving the consequences of what is assumed. Given the truth of the assumptions, a valid deduction guarantees the truth of the conclusion.

- Induction allows inferring some b from multiple instantiations of a when b entails a. Induction is the process of inferring probable antecedents as a result of observing multiple consequents.

- Abduction allows inferring a as an explanation of b. Because of this, abduction allows the precondition a of "a entails b" to be inferred from the consequence b. Deduction and abduction thus differ in the direction in which a rule like "a entails b" is used for inference. As such abduction is formally equivalent to the logical fallacy affirming the consequent.