Law School Discussion

Nine Years of Discussion
;

Poll

Are You?

Black American--all four grandparents born and raised in this country
 13 (37.1%)
Carribbean origin--at least one of your grandparents hails from the Carribbean
 0 (0%)
African origin--at least one of your grandparents hails from the Carribbean
 0 (0%)
of recent Carribbean immigration--at least one of your parents was born/raised in the Carribbean
 2 (5.7%)
of recent African immigration--at least one of your parents was born/raised in Africa
 5 (14.3%)
an immigrant yourself (born and or raised in Africa or the Carribbean)
 3 (8.6%)
biracial/interracial
 3 (8.6%)
a mix of the above options (please explain)
 1 (2.9%)
not black at all  (why are you on this thread?!  just kidding)
 8 (22.9%)

Total Members Voted: 25

Author Topic: Diversity within the Black community  (Read 8271 times)

One Step Ahead

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 6465
  • you say you want a revolution
    • View Profile
Diversity within the Black community
« on: March 01, 2005, 08:52:24 AM »
A number of people have posted articles etc talking about the diversity within the Black community and while it is fun to see it on many different threads, it becomes difficult to engage in any meaningful conversation on the topic.  So sorry for the new thread HBCU, but you never did post my poll  ;)

One Step Ahead

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 6465
  • you say you want a revolution
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #1 on: March 01, 2005, 08:53:37 AM »
reign posted---

More Africans in America Means More Opportunities for Real Black Unity
Date: Thursday, February 24, 2005
By: Wayne Dawkins, BlackAmericaWeb.com

For the first time, more Africans are entering the United States than the last waves brought here enslaved in the early 1800s, the New York Times reported on Monday.

There’s even a new name for these new arrivals, Salih Booker of Africa Action explained: African Neo-Diaspora. The “neo” is a time distinction that says Africans are coming here under different circumstances, either as immigrants chasing the American dream or as refugees escaping dangers in their native land.

Either way, Booker and other Africa watchers explained that the phenomenon will reshape the American landscape over decades.

The Times reported that since 1990, at least 700,000 African immigrants – about 50,000 a year – settled legally in America. Nearly two centuries ago in 1807 the importation of African slaves ended, and post-slavery, African immigration was severely restricted by the government for much of the 1900s.

Booker said that African immigrants compared to others from Europe, Asia and the Western Hemisphere are still restricted, yet the burst in African immigration is remarkable -- so remarkable that in 2004, for the first time, the majority of refugees entering America were African, 28,000 out of 52,000 documented refugees, said Tsehaye Teferra, director of the Ethiopian Community Development Council in Arlington, Va. Documented, I’ll note, because a source in the Times story said that actual African migration to America quadruples the official numbers.

Such volume, observed Bill Fletcher of the TransAfrica Forum, means that African immigrants “are changing the face of black America.”

African-Americans,” he added, “need to think much more broadly of whom we are as a people and learn their culture and be tolerant.”

Why? “There’s going to be a danger or a perception of competition,” Fletcher counseled, “and a danger of intolerance,” as in American blacks telling African immigrants, ‘We were here first. Learn English.’”

The flip side of this equation, Fletcher added, is that African immigrants are going to have to learn more about who we are. Many of the new arrivals may not know about black America’s struggles with racism and poverty.

Booker explained why many newly arrived Africans may not initially feel black America’s pain. “Like other waves of immigrants,” he said, “people are focused on their own security – jobs, housing and social services like learning the language.

“Phase II means that once they are more secure, they go for family reunification,” Booker continued. “With Phase III, you see them participating in the political process in our country.”

Examples include former mayors Emmanuel Onunwor of East Cleveland, Ohio, who's from Nigeria, and Babatunde Deinbo of Berkeley, Mo., also from Nigeria.

So what about U.S. Sen. Barack Obama?

He is red, white, blue and obviously black, the U.S.-born child of an immigrant father from Kenya, and yes, Obama, said Booker, “is the poster child for the political arrival of the next wave of people of African descent.”

Educationally, Africans are the highest performing of all immigrants, said Booker, contrary to negative stereotypes about Africans.

And whether African immigrants acknowledge the reality or not, when they touch American soil, they are black; their skin color defines them in the eyes of whites and many blacks, not their tribe or country of origin.

Unfortunately, their redefinition has meant lethal consequences for some; reference Amadou Diallo, the unarmed immigrant from Guinea who in 1999 was shot 41 times by police for making the fatal mistake of reaching for his wallet. Or Ousmane Zongo of Burkina Faso, another unarmed immigrant, who was fatally shot by a plainclothes New York cop in 2003. The shooter is on currently on trial.

Booker said that after years or several decades of contacts in New York, Atlanta, Chicago, Houston and many small towns, tensions between African immigrants and native blacks are familiar. There are the anecdotes about African taxi drivers displacing Americans, or competing for the other readily available employment.

A re-energizing impact of these immigrants is going to the doctor, dentist or accountant in core cities and being served by a native Ghanaian or Nigerian. Immigrants, said Booker, often fill a void left by native middle-class blacks who have moved on to the suburbs.

Expect African immigrants to keep coming to the United States and redefine our American quilt. Black America in the 21st century, said Fletcher, means “we’re not just the descendants of slaves from the South.”

So now, more than ever, there's a mutual opportunity -- and responsibility -- for blacks in America, neo and native, to learn each others' culture.

One Step Ahead

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 6465
  • you say you want a revolution
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #2 on: March 01, 2005, 08:56:29 AM »
regal and mobell posted--

    Shades of gray in black enrollment
    Immigrants' rising numbers a concern to some activists
    - Jason B. Johnson, Chronicle Staff Writer
    Tuesday, February 22, 2005

    Click to ViewClick to View

    When educators and politicians argue for giving more African Americans the chance to thrive at top universities, they see people like UC Berkeley fourth-year student Obi Amajoyi as a perfect example of what they have in mind.

    He's a biology major who has emerged as a peer leader and athlete. He recruits high school students and is a member of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. But while Amajoyi was born in the United States, his parents are from Africa. He considers himself both African American and Nigerian.

    "I definitely identify with all the struggles that we as African Americans have had to go through," said Amajoyi, 21. "But at the same time, I have this (other) history from my parents."

    But Amajoyi is not a direct descendant of American slaves. And critics say his presence at the university -- and that of other black immigrants and their children -- shows institutions have failed to reach those who were the original targets of diversity outreach efforts.

    Affirmative action programs were started in the wake of the 1960s civil rights movement to help African Americans overcome the legacy of slavery and decades of Jim Crow discrimination in employment, education and other fields.

    In 1998, the passage of Proposition 209 ended the programs in California and led to -- what many activists say -- a steady decline in African American enrollment. Critics say that the rising number of black immigrants and their children, such as Amajoyi, at the universities has further decreased outreach efforts to African Americans and have raised concerns that American- born blacks will again be left behind.

    But outgoing UC Regent Ward Connerly says the debate only shows how affirmative action has always failed to help those blacks most in need.

    "Over the years, preference programs, affirmative action programs, have really not benefited low-income blacks, those who were the descendants of slaves," said Connerly. "They have benefited middle- and upper-income blacks.

    "Recent immigrants are the beneficiaries of this terribly flawed program, " said Connerly. "The institutions don't care about that -- all they care about is chalking up the numbers."

    Connerly says schools run the risk of sowing division between immigrants and African Americans. But he doubts UC officials will do anything to address the issue.

    "To a large extent, this has flown beneath the radar," said Connerly. "We (regents) have not discussed it, and I don't think we will."

    Nathan Hare, who fought to establish the first ethnic studies program in the United States at San Francisco State University in 1968 and is co-founder of the Black Think Tank in San Francisco, blames these numbers on old stereotypes.

    "I have nothing against immigrants, but there are sociological realities we have to look at," said Hare. "They don't have the stereotypes of them being lazy and so on."

    Hare says black immigrants often arrive with higher levels of education and are more willing to take low-level jobs, which can affect how quickly they move up in society.

    "We'd have a much harder time doing that -- we're supposed to have been past that," said Hare. "We are the ex-slaves and inhabitants of the slums. They (immigrants) are coming in without that (baggage)."

    Since 1990, according to immigration figures reported in the New York Times, more African immigrants have arrived in the United States voluntarily than the total who came as slaves before international slave trafficking was outlawed in 1807. More have been coming here annually -- about 50,000 legal immigrants -- than in any of the peak years of the Middle Passage across the Atlantic, and more have migrated here from Africa since 1990 than in nearly the entire preceding two centuries, according to the report.

    In addition, a recent study shows the number of black immigrant students is high.

    Researchers at Princeton University and the University of Pennsylvania who have been studying the achievement of minority students at 28 selective colleges and universities (including Berkeley, Columbia, Yale and Duke) last year found that 41 percent of the black students identified themselves as immigrants, children of immigrants or mixed race.

    In December, 300 black students at Berkeley staged a "blackout" day to protest the school's lack of diversity, wearing all-black outfits and bandanas over their mouths. Last fall, there were 108 African American freshmen enrolled at Berkeley out of more than 3,600 freshman students.

    Richard Black, associate vice chancellor of admissions and enrollment at Berkeley, says the school does not keep records on the immigrant vs. nonimmigrant makeup of its black student population.

    Black says that under state law, students are judged under comprehensive review, which looks at an applicant's life experiences and not at race.

    "We're looking at where the student is now and where they went to school, " said Black. "We're not looking at conditions of several generations ago."

    Black says the school seeks to attract a diverse student body by having increased visits to urban schools and through outreach efforts by alumni and current students.

    "Obviously, we have not had the success that we want," said Black.

    On a recent day, Amajoyi and some other students gathered on UC Berkeley's campus to discuss the challenges they face at the elite institution.

    "I'm not sure how deep the line between being from Africa or the Caribbean or being African American is," said Amajoyi, who was born in Texas and grew up in Southern California. "Because our numbers are so low, just being black on campus brings you together. The first thing is you're black."

    Amajoyi's parents both came to the United States on student visas and attended Texas A&M University.

    Branden Turner, 20, a third-year biology major from Los Angeles, recalled taking an African American studies class taught by a professor from the Caribbean. His teacher's background was the topic of discussion on the first day of class.

    "His point was that even though he came to America, once you walk onto American soil, you deal with the black struggle," said Turner. "I'm perceived (by classmates) as not being as intelligent as the others in my class."

    Rabiah Burks, 21, a fourth-year student majoring in history and African American studies, grew up in South Central Los Angeles. She says kids in her inner-city high school suffered from a lack of books and other supplies.

    "We didn't have proper teachers. We didn't have proper books," said Burks. "My calculus class had no books. Our teacher worked off a board. Nobody invests in black children."

    Harvard law Professor Lani Guinier has voiced concerns that many of Harvard's black undergraduate students are West Indian and African immigrants or their children.

    Guinier believes the numbers are a sign of a much greater problem: the criteria used in admissions by top schools. She's writing a book that proposes expanding current merit-based criteria to examine other factors.

    "For me, the key point is not whether you should be admitting immigrants or native-born people of color," Guinier said. "The key point is the schools should be reconsidering their reliance on a set of predictors that don't measure the potential outcome of the students."

    E-mail Jason B. Johnson at jbjohnson@sfchronicle.com.

    Page A - 1
    URL: http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/02/22/MNGIJBF3LP1.DTL
    ©2005 San Francisco Chronicle


Statistic

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 10080
  • I never had a chance
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #3 on: March 01, 2005, 10:38:42 AM »
heifa'
Look to the left -- Look to the right

One Step Ahead

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 6465
  • you say you want a revolution
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #4 on: March 01, 2005, 10:45:43 AM »
heifa'

why you always bringing up your mom?

Statistic

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 10080
  • I never had a chance
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #5 on: March 01, 2005, 10:46:38 AM »
heifa'

why you always bringing up your mom?

I'm talking about you. You smug little punk.
Look to the left -- Look to the right

One Step Ahead

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 6465
  • you say you want a revolution
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #6 on: March 01, 2005, 10:49:47 AM »
heifa'

why you always bringing up your mom?

I'm talking about you. You smug little punk.

I told you to get help for your dissociation problem. 

Statistic

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 10080
  • I never had a chance
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #7 on: March 01, 2005, 10:51:03 AM »
heifa'

why you always bringing up your mom?

I'm talking about you. You smug little punk.

I told you to get help for your dissociation problem. 

Dissociation? That doesn't sound good. What's that, heifa?
Look to the left -- Look to the right

blk_reign

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 7978
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #8 on: March 10, 2005, 08:54:50 PM »
Knowledge fades as Africa languages die
Date: Monday, March 07, 2005
By: Associated Press

MAPUTO, Mozambique  - A U.N. Conference on Trade and Development report on protecting traditional knowledge argues that beyond a devastating impact on culture, the death of a language wipes out centuries of know-how in preserving ecosystems - leading to grave consequences for biodiversity.

The United Nations estimates half of the world's 6,000 languages will disappear in less than a century. Roughly a third of those are spoken in Africa and about 200 already have less than 500 speakers. Experts estimate half the world's people now use one of just eight languages: Chinese, English, Hindi, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Portuguese and French.

Villagers in Indonesia's Kayan Mentarang national park, for example, have for centuries practiced a system of forest management called Tanah Ulen, or "forbidden land." On a rotating basis, elders declare parcels of the forest protected, prohibiting hunting and gathering.

Along a boulevard lined with flowering acacia trees, young people in designer clothes and high-heeled shoes chatter on the sidewalk struggling to be heard over the driving Latin rhythms spilling from a nightclub.

Maputo's vibrant nightlife lets people forget it is the capital of one of the world's poorest countries. Here you can eat Italian, dance like a Brazilian and flirt in Portuguese.

One thing that's in ever shorter supply and perhaps even less demand: Mozambique's own indigenous languages, the storehouse for the accumulated knowledge of generations.

"Sons no longer speak the language of their fathers ... our culture is dying," laments Paulo Chihale, director of a project that seeks to train Mozambican youths in traditional crafts.

While Mozambique has 23 native languages, the only official one is Portuguese - a hand-me-down tongue from colonial times that at once unifies a linguistically diverse country and undermines the African traditions that help make it unique.

Chihale looks up from his cluttered desk at MozArte, the U.N.- and government-funded crafts project, and complains bitterly about how his nation's memory is fading away.

"Our culture has a rich oral tradition, oral history, stories told from one generation to another. But it is an oral literature our kids will never hear," says Chihale, who speaks the Chopi language at home.

Anthropologists speculate that tribal people whose ancestors have lived for tens of thousands of years on India's Andaman and Nicobar islands survived Asia's tsunami catastrophe because of ancient knowledge. They think signs in the wind, the sea and the flight of birds let the tribes know to get to higher ground ahead of the waves.

But finding economic reasons to keep tradition alive can be a challenge.

In Mozambique, cheap foreign imports have destroyed the market for local crafts beyond what little can be sold to tourists. Horacio Arab, the son of a basket weaver who learned his father's trade, said he improved his skills at MozArte but then abandoned weaving because he could not make a living.

Mozambican linguist Rafael Shambela says the pressures from globalization are often too great to resist. To conserve native languages and culture will require societies to find ways to cast them with an inherent value, he argues.

On a small campus along a dirt road south of Maputo, Shambela has joined a government effort to write textbooks and curriculums that will allow public school students to learn in 16 of the country's 23 languages. But the program is limited by Mozambique's poverty.

"A language is a culture," says Shambela, who works for Mozambique's National Institute for the Development of Education. "It contains the history of a people and all the knowledge they have passed down for generations."

The trade-off in settling on Portuguese as a unifying force after independence in 1975 has been an erosion of the rites and rhythms of traditional life.

"From dating to mourning, the rules are becoming less clear," Shambela says.

We're not accepting this CHANGE UP in the rules. Period. American presidents have been in the bed with organized crime, corporate pilferers, and the like for years. And all u want to put on this man is that his pastor said "Gotdamn America?" Hell, America.U got off pretty damn well, if you ask me...

One Step Ahead

  • LSD Obsessed
  • *****
  • Posts: 6465
  • you say you want a revolution
    • View Profile
Re: Diversity within the Black community
« Reply #9 on: March 11, 2005, 11:38:27 AM »
good article reign