"Young begins by identifying various types of lies used by the police. Police officers lie about the strength of the case (a co-defendant has confessed, a witness saw them commit the crime, falsely assert that fingerprints exist), fabricate evidence (make false photographs of crime scenes), lie abut culpability (claim that the victim ?deserved? the crime or that the defendant will receive a reduced sentence), and police can lie about the circumstances of the interrogation (impersonate an interrogator or record conversations between suspects). The cases that Young cites are often shocking, such as a confession that was found valid after police bought a knife, created a bloody fingerprint on it, photographed it, and used the fabricated photo to convince the defendant that his fingerprint had been identified. Other interrogations upheld by various courts are equally as startling."