Most federal district courts restrict bar membership to in state attorneys, some require co-counsel on cases, the minority permit out of state attorneys to become members, ND Illinois, USDC North Dakota, USDC Puerto Rico come to mind. The Circuit Courts of Appeals are more liberal. But even though I can represent a client in the 11th Circuit in Atlanta, I cannot set up an office there because I am not a Georgia attorney. For a single case, pro hac vice is always available but that usually but not always requires local counsel. And therein lies the idiocy of the entire scheme, the higher the court, the less thaty are concerned about your law degree or where your state bar membership is from.
There is a lawsuit in California ongoing about this:http://www.mjplaw.org/index.html