people who smoke around pregnant women. ben affleck, kevin federline: i'm talking to you!
and pregnant women that drink alcohol...
I'm fairly certain this is just American puritanism, combined with a poor understanding of statistics, run amok. Yes, smoking too much during pregnancy is bad. Yes, drinking excessively during pregnancy is bad. But if I remember my UG public health courses correctly, if you limit your samples to women who drink moderately (i.e., France), the negative effects almost entirely disappear.
I also don't get the pro-natalism. Kids are as important as adults, not more so.
i think the idea of "pro-natalism" comes from the fact that children and unborn children, are defenseless... that's why children are viewed so "preciously" in the eyes of society in general and the law.
and while you may be correct in saying a moderate amount of smoking / drink are not SHOWN to cause any significant defects, parents are hyper when it comes to that stuff ... my sister in law, a certified Dunkin Donuts coffee addict refuses to drink caffeine of any sort during her pregnancy just because she once heard that too much caffiene can cause some defect. its just the "rare cases" that people are afraid of.