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Current Law Students / Re: Legal Reasoning
« on: August 18, 2007, 08:50:07 PM »

If you reading into the OP's post quoting Nietzsche as saying that to adopt the Roman attitude and lifestyle one had to engage in prosecution of Jews as Nazi Germany did, I think you are wrong.

In fact, some people tend to dislike Friedrich Nietzsche on the grounds that his thought is dangerous, that it lends itself to totalitarianism and, more specifically, to fascism. The history of Nietzsche's adoption by the forces of National Socialism in Germany has been well documented. Adolf Hitler personally approved of Nietzsche's writings, and upon coming to power he promoted one of Nietzsche's first Nazi disciples, Alfred Baumler, to professor of philosophy in Berlin. During the Nazi period Nietzsche was both widely read and celebrated in Germany. He was considered to be one of the master-thinkers of the Aryan race. After Germany lost the war, Nietzsche's thought fell into disrepute. Martin Heidegger even blamed his involvement in Nazi politics on the influence of Nietzsche. Since that time, however, Nietzsche's work has enjoyed a modest revival. Nevertheless, Nietzsche is still viewed with suspicion in many circles because of a circumstance of history that was beyond his control. Many critics continue to argue that Nietzsche's thinking is at best dangerous or, at worst, downright evil because it leads directly to fascism.

This argument, though, is simply untenable given a careful reading of Nietzsche's work. From an examination of his texts, skipping the "approved" Nazi interpretations, one can easily argue that Nietzsche would have certainly opposed his appropriation by National Socialism, particularly its hideous manifestation in Nazi Germany.

In 1886 Nietzsche broke with his editor, Ernst Schmeitzner, disgusted over his anti-Semitic opinions. Nietzsche saw his writings as "completely buried and unexhumeable in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner — associating the editor with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind".

It is his sister Elisabeth, who in 1886, married the anti-Semite Bernhard Förster and traveled to Paraguay to found Nueva Germania, a "Germanic" colony, a plan to which Nietzsche responded with laughter. Elisabeth, for instance, compiled "The Will to Power," from notes he had written, and published it posthumously. The general consensus holds that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent. Indeed, Mazzino Montinari, the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass, called it a forgery. Among other forgeries and suppressions of passages, Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of "The Antichrist," where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible.

Although Nietzsche had in 1886 announced (at the end of "Beyond Good and Evil") a new work with the title, "The Will to Power: Essay of a Transvaluation of all Values," this project was finally abandoned and its draft materials used to compose "The Twilight of the Idols" and "The Antichrist" (both written in 1888). "The Will to Power," which Elisabeth Förster called Nietzsche's unedited magnum opus (which very concept is alien to Nietzsche's philosophy and style of writing), was in fact abandoned as a book by Nietzsche himself. Förster-Nietzsche cut up, mixed and pasted together fragments, according to her own antisemitic views (which were a bone of contention between her and Nietzsche himself). Nevertheless, the concept remains, and has, since the reading of Karl Löwith, been identified as a key component of Nietzsche's philosophy. So The Will to Power was not written by Nietzsche. But the concept of "will to power" is certainly in itself a major motif of Nietzsche's philosophy, so much so that Heidegger, under Löwith's influence, considered it to form, with the thought of the eternal recurrence, the basis of his thought.

Not to mention that after he stopped teaching at Basel University in 1879, on a visit to Rome in 1882 at 37 met Lou Salomé, a 21-old Russian-Jewish woman who was studying philosophy and theology in Zurich. He soon fell in love with her, and twice proposed to her. Although his both offers were rejected, the relationship was spoilt by Elisabeth who was absolutely anti-Semitic, and hated the Jewish blood in Lou. Thus Nietzsche has lost his love, and remained alone.



Nietzsche's concept of eternal recurrence, for instance, was addressed by Schopenhauer. It is a purely physical concept, involving no "reincarnation," but the return of beings in the same bodies. Time is viewed as being not linear but cyclical. By the way, Eternal Recurrence is a concept which posits that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur in the exact same self-similar form an incomprehensible and unfathomable number of times. The concept has roots in ancient Egypt, and was subsequently taken up by the Pythagoreans and Stoics. With the decline of antiquity and the spread of Christianity, the concept fell into disuse, though Friedrich Nietzsche briefly resurrected it. The basic premise is that the universe is limited in extent and contains a finite amount of matter, while time is viewed as being infinite. The universe has no starting or ending state, while the matter comprising it is constantly changing its state. The number of possible changes is finite, and so sooner or later the same state will recur.

Nietzsche never hid the fact that he was deeply influenced by Schopenhauer and his non-rational philosophy of will expressed in The World as Will and Idea after he transferred to University of Leipzig. However, by nature Nietzsche was not rational, but was, from the beginning of philosophical study, deeply attracted to non-rational elements of reality, which in Schopenhauer's philosophy was the concept of will. 

Current Law Students / Re: EXAMS' TIME: STUDY AS LESS AS YOU CAN
« on: August 18, 2007, 08:30:20 PM »

This principle can be stated as a simple matter of dog training: point out what you don't want -- and he will do it.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov conducted some experiments like this I've read. Pavlov's description on how animals (and humans) can be trained to respond in a certain way to a particular stimulus drew tremendous interest from the time he first presented his results. His work paved the way for a new, more objective method of studying behavior. So-called Pavlovian training has been used in many fields, with anti-phobia treatment as but one example. An important principle in conditioned learning is that an established conditioned response (salivating in the case of the dogs) decreases in intensity if the conditioned stimulus (bell) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (food). This process is called extinction.

In order to treat phobias evoked by certain environmental situations, such as heights or crowds, this phenomenon can be used. The patient is first taught a muscle relaxation technique. Then he or she is told , over a period of days, to imagine the fear-producing situation while trying to inhibit the anxiety by relaxation. At the end of the series, the strongest anxiety-provoking situation may be brought to mind without anxiety. This process is called systematic desensitization.

Conditioning forms the basis of much of learned human behavior. Nowadays, this knowledge has also been exploited by commercial advertising. An effective commercial should be able to manipulate the response to a stimulus (like seeing a product's name) which initially does not provoke any feeling. The objective is to train people to make the "false" connection between positive emotions (e.g. happiness or feeling attractive) and the particular brand of consumer goods being advertised.

Is Pavlov with his findings the one that influenced B.F. Skinner?

Current Law Students / Re: The Terrorist Attack On America
« on: August 18, 2007, 08:20:15 PM »

Astrology is the original hologram. A hologram is a 'picture of the whole'. We think of holograms as those amazing three-dimensional photographs made with lasers. But the concept of a hologram can be applied to anything that represents a complete picture, if such is possible. By its nature, astrology depicts the whole; it is a system based on a representation of the cosmos, into which any idea can be integrated, and from which any new idea can be inferred.

Astrology is a non-linear system of thought, perhaps the oldest and most enduring example of nonlinear thought in western culture. In effect, it is a nonlinear model of time. But it is also a model of time with many cycles present, and many ways of advancing time. Astrologers do not just use 'real time', but also use models of time and different images of time to assess the qualities of the past, the present and the future. Often these different methods of examining time provide startlingly similar information, but have the advantage of giving a diversity of viewpoints.

Not really! By the time of Francis Bacon and the scientific revolution, newly emerging scientific disciplines acquired a method of systematic empirical induction validated by experimental observations, which led to the scientific revolution. At this point, astrology and astronomy began to diverge; astronomy became one of the central sciences while astrology was increasingly viewed as an occult science or superstition by natural scientists. This separation accelerated through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Astrology has been criticized as being unscientific both by scientific bodies and by individual scientists and has been labeled as a pseudoscience. In 1975, the American Humanist Association published one of the most widely known modern criticisms of astrology, characterizing those who continue to have faith in the subject as doing so "in spite of the fact that there is no verified scientific basis for their beliefs, and indeed that there is strong evidence to the contrary". Astronomer Carl Sagan did not sign the statement, noting that, while he felt astrology lacked validity, he found the statement's tone authoritarian. He suggested that the lack of a causal mechanism for astrology was relevant but not in itself convincing. Although astrology has had no accepted scientific standing for some time, it has been the subject of much research among astrologers since the beginning of the twentieth century. In his landmark study of twentieth-century research into natal astrology, vocal astrology critic Geoffrey Dean noted and documented the burgeoning research activity, primarily within the astrological community.


In February 2003, the New York Senator and former First Lady Hillary Clinton announced that she would support a national identification card for US citizens claiming that she would support it as part of an overall effort to improve national security.

"Clearly, we have to make some tough decisions as a country," Clinton warned. "And one of them ought to be coming up with a much better entry and exit system so that if we're going to let people in for the work that otherwise would not be done, let's have a system that keeps track of them."

What a female dog!!!



I'm starting law school in a week or two and I feel a bit nervous about it -- I am 38 years old and most of my classmates will be 22, straight out of college. Do you think the 16 year age difference will be an issue? (I'll be a full-time student)


If you'd be going PArt time it'd be absolutely no problem, the typical student is close to 30. One thing is for sure -- it is wiser to go full time.

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