Law School Discussion

LSAT Preparation => Studying for the LSAT => Topic started by: forest on August 15, 2005, 08:25:23 AM

Title: Ask for help! a LR difficulty: 5
Post by: forest on August 15, 2005, 08:25:23 AM
I couldn’t figure out the LR question after looking at it for 2 hours  ??? Millions of thanks for you help!   It is in Superprep  Feb, 2000   Section 4  #24

If an external force intervenes to give members of a community political self-determination, then that political community will almost surely fail to be truly free, since it is during the people’s struggle to become free by their own efforts that the political virtues necessary for maintaining freedom have the best chance of arising.

The reasoning above conforms most closely to which one of the following principles?

A)   Political freedom is a virtue that a community can attain through an external force
B)   Self-determination is not the first political virtue that the members of a community achieve in their struggle to become free
C)   A community cannot remain free without first having developed certain political virtue
D)   Political self determination is required if a community is to remain truly free
E)   Real freedom should not be imposed on a community by external forces









Answer: C
Premise  :  it is during the people’s struggle to become free by their own efforts that the political virtues necessary for maintaining freedom have the best chance of arising.

Does this mean,    if political virtues have the best chance of arising, then people should struggle to become free by their own efforts ?
Also  “political virtues necessary for maintaining freedom” ===  maintain freedom political virtues  ?

If this is the case, then by external force, political virtues don’t have the best chance of arising. Then freedom can’t maintain, which is the conclusion. 

Is the analysis right? According to the analysis, there is no gap in the stimulus. The answer C is just a repeat of ““political virtues necessary for maintaining freedom”?


For this type of question, how to solve it? LRB says it is strengthen-principle type. But the answer choice is just a repeat of part of the premise.  ???




Title: Re: Ask for help! a LR difficulty: 5
Post by: Atlas429 on August 15, 2005, 08:58:52 AM
C) is diagramed as if free --> develop certain political virtues.

The contrapositive of this statement is in the first part of the stimulus, qwhile a restatement of this priniciple is in the "since it is during the people's..." part of the stimulus.

At least that's how I read it.
Title: Re: Ask for help! a LR difficulty: 5
Post by: Dionysus on August 15, 2005, 09:06:09 AM

For this type of question, how to solve it? LRB says it is strengthen-principle type. But the answer choice is just a repeat of part of the premise.  ???


The principle at work can certainly be a premise of the stimulus, because the principle at work affects the argument/conclusion, as does a premise.
I think almost every stimulus has one premise, which sets up a principle on which the argument relies.

In the question you posted, answer C jumped out at me because it was the only answer choice that accurately restated a premise of the argument: necessary political virtues arise out of struggle, otherwise, freedom will not be maintained. 

The other answer choices misrepresent the premises/argument.

A for example is out of scope: the stimulus never says political self-determination is a virtue.

B also mistakenly refers to self-determination as a political virtue and then also says it is not the first to arise, but we do not know this, and the opposite can even be true if, as the argument stats, necessarily political virtues do not arise if self-determination is external, which could mean no other political virtues arise.

D is the opposite of the argument, which says self-determination (external) is not enough to maintain freedom.

E is outside the scope.  The stimulus does not mention "real freedom" only "maintaining freedom."  Furthermore, there is no recommendation in the stimulus, although this conclusion could follow from the stimulus.  E seems too much of a conclusion rather than a principle.

HTH
Title: Re: Ask for help! a LR difficulty: 5
Post by: forest on August 15, 2005, 09:08:08 AM

If a community remains free, it must have struggled mightily to become free by their own efforts

Thanks!!

But how does this conditional reasoning come from? 
Title: Re: Ask for help! a LR difficulty: 5
Post by: forest on August 15, 2005, 09:25:27 AM

For this type of question, how to solve it? LRB says it is strengthen-principle type. But the answer choice is just a repeat of part of the premise.  ???


The principle at work can certainly be a premise of the stimulus, because the principle at work affects the argument/conclusion, as does a premise.
I think almost every stimulus has one premise, which sets up a principle on which the argument relies.



Thanks!   So  the principle either add additional information to support the conclusion (which is the usual case ) or just restate part of the premise ( in this question)

I diagram the latter part as:

Maintain freedom--->  certain political virtues  ---->  struggle by their own


But my digram is just the reverse of  big underdog's

If people struggle to become free by their own efforts, then political virtues have the best chance of arising.


Title: Re: Ask for help! a LR difficulty: 5
Post by: forest on August 15, 2005, 11:20:48 AM

If a community remains free, it must have struggled mightily to become free by their own efforts

Thanks!!

But how does this conditional reasoning come from? 

Read the latter portion of my explanation again.

Your explanation "
If a community remains free, it must have struggled mightily to become free by their own efforts, which in turn leads to political virtues having had the absolute best chance of arising, so we can infer it must have (we're assuming here, not conclusively stating) developed certain political virtues."

the latter portion is ", which in turn leads to political virtues having had the absolute best chance of arising, so we can infer it must have (we're assuming here, not conclusively stating) developed certain political virtues." I know from
"having best chance of arising" to "have develop " we need assumption.

But I am not clear why from " if a community remains free" you can know" it must have struggle mightily to become free by their own effort". No premises have mentioned this.

Maybe I am just messed up.
Title: Re: Ask for help! a LR difficulty: 5
Post by: theunderdog on August 15, 2005, 12:17:32 PM
since it is during the people’s struggle to become free by their own efforts that the political virtues necessary for maintaining freedom have the best chance of arising.

Then you can say

If a country maintains freedom, the political virtues necessary have the best chance of arising (what is in italics is irrelevant; we infer from this that political virtues are necessary)

Answer C tells us if a country maintains freedom, political virtue is necessary.

Therefore C is the credited response.